A Long Drink of Water
In Wisconsin, United States
Size:  (not chosen)
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This cache is an artesian well that supplies water to both campers in the area as well to many local residents.
There were four major stages of Ice Age Glaciation that left their mark on the topography and soils of Wisconsin. The last stage, called the Wisconsin stage, ended approximately 10,000 years ago. The outwash plains left stratified deposits consisting of gravel, sand, silt and clay, laid down by water from the melting ice fronts.
The water in an artesian well flows from an aquifer, which is a layer of very porous rock or sediment, usually sandstone, capable of holding and transmitting large quantities of water.
The geologic conditions necessary for an artesian well are an inclined aquifer sandwiched between impervious rock layers above and below which trap water in it.
Water enters the exposed edge of the aquifer at a high elevation and percolates downward through interconnected pore spaces. The water held in these spaces is under pressure because of the weight of water in the portion of the aquifer above it.
If a well is drilled (or dug) from a land surface through the overlying impervious layer into the aquifer, this pressure will cause the water to rise in the well. In areas where the slope of the aquifer is great enough, pressure will drive the water above ground level in a spectacular, permanent fountain.
Artesian springs (which is what we have here) can occur in similar fashion where faults or cracks in the overlying impervious layer allow water to flow upward. Water from an artesian well or spring is usually cold and free of organic contaminants, making it desirable for drinking.
In order to log this cache you are required to
1. post a picture of a member of you party at the well or if you are by yourself of your gps at the well.
2. e-mail the flow of the well in gallons per minute as listed at the sign at the well.
If you are willing I would appreciate a picture of you at the well also be e-mailed. The person at the National Forest Office who granted permission would like some photos for there files. The photo may be used in one of their promotional materials so any photos sent will be received with the understanding that you are releasing them for publication.
3. When you are standing where the water comes out, look up hill to the south west about 100 ft. There you will see a stainless steal box. This is the actual spring. Now estimate high much higher this is than the road bed. Since water flows down hill why does the water come out of the ground there instead of seeping out of the ground at a lower level? The information sign at the site may help you figure out the answer. As you spend time hiking in the area pay attention to the soil types.
(No hints available.)
Last Updated: on 10/12/2014 2:56:45 PM Pacific Daylight Time (9:56 PM GMT)
Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum