Watershed Park Artesian Well
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Watershed Park is Delta’s largest parcel of park reserve. The municipality acquired the majority of the lands now identified as Watershed Park in the 1920’s and early 1930’s to facilitate the development and preservation of a dependable water supply for East Delta and Ladner. This was based on the existence of artesian wells on the land and is the source of the park’s name.
The 153 hectare park is dominated by a second growth coniferous forest. Eleven kilometers of gravel trails wind their way through the park for cycling, walking, jogging, horseback riding and nature appreciation. Venture down to the Artesian Trail by the old pumphouse and observe salmon in Watershed Creek.
Artesian wells were named after the former province of Artois in France, where many artesian wells were drilled by Carthusian monks since 1126. The technique was also known much earlier in Syria and Egypt, although whether the monks of Artois learned of it from outside sources or discovered it independently is unknown.
An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater that will flow upwards out of a well without the need for pumping. An aquifer provides the water for an artesian well. An aquifer is a layer of soft rock, like limestone or sandstone, that absorbs water from an inlet path. Porous stone is crushed between impermeable rocks or clay. This keeps the pressure high, so when the water finds a hole, it overcomes gravity and goes up instead of down.
Why is a well Artesian?
In recharging aquifers, this happens because the water table at its recharge zone is at a higher elevation than the head of the well.
Pascal's law predicts the theoretical hydrostatic pressure P:
where ? (rho) is the density of the fluid, g the acceleration due to gravity, and z is the elevation. In practical terms the pressure is expressed as metres water column (zr - zw).
"Fossil water" aquifers can also be artesian if they are under sufficient pressure from the surrounding rocks. This is similar to how many newly tapped oil wells are pressurized.
To log this cache, you will first have to fullfill a few requirements.
1) Take a photo of you or your group at the EarthCache location, and post it with your log.
2) Take a close up photo of your GPSr and the artesian well together. Your latitude and longitude must be readable in the photo. Post it with your log.
3)Identify 2 different species of plants and/or trees at the location. Email me their common and scientific names.
4)Measure the flow rate of the small hole in the well. Do this by filling a small container of known volume and timing how long it takes to fill it. Then convert your time into minutes to tell me approx. how much water is flowing out in one minute.
5)Taste the water and tell me if you enjoyed it.
(No hints available.)
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Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum