Pohled na pivovar a pivovarskou zahradu (byvalou zahradu klarisek) z Havrani skaly, historicke foto
Historie pivovarnictvi v Ceskem Krumlove
je patrne stara jako mesto samo. Uz ve 13. stoleti se varilo pivo pro vrchnost a pro sluzebnictvo, pro mnichy a zence pak redina a patoky. Pansky pivovar i sladovna se nachazely primo v zamku, na ctvrtem nadvori.
Take mesto melo vzdy minimalne jeden pivovar. Nepochybne se pivo ve meste varilo uz od 14. stol. V r. 1347 udelil Petr I. z Rozmberka krumlovskym pravo na krcmy a pivovar. Varilo se pivo nejen jecne jako v soucasnosti, ale i psenicne, ktere bylo dokonce oblibenejsi a tim i vynosnejsi.
Az do r. 1555 byl Krumlov vlastne dvema mesty s vlastnimi radnicemi a take vlastnimi pivovary – pod zamkem to byl Latran a Krumlov na druhe strane reky okolo namesti. Mezi obema mesty dochazelo k neustalym sporum a jeden z nejostrejsich byl o pravo varit psenicne pivo. V roce 1459 byli sice latransti zrovnopravneni, ale v roce 1503 preslo toto pravo vyhradne na Krumlov. V roce 1555 shledal Vilem z Rozmberka, ze uz nehodla dale snaset nekoncici spory a obe casti spojil v mesto jedine s nazvem Krumlov.
Kapacita panskeho pivovaru prestala v 16.stol stacit narustajici spotrebe a poptavce. Neni se ostatne co divit, nebot podle dobovych pramenu byl v te dobe kazdy osmy dum ve meste hospodou. Proto dal Vilem z Rozmberka vystavit v r.1560 v predhradi pivovar novy. Velikym pokrokem bylo, kdyz k nemu o rok pozdeji Jakub Krcin z Jelcan privedl vodovod s velmi kvalitni vodou. Vilemovi se to urcite vyplatilo, nebot podle dobovych pramenu cinily vynosy z pivovarnictvi 50% veskerych prijmu celeho rozmberskeho panstvi.
V r.1611 Rozmberkove ale Petrem Vokem vymreli, pricemz krumlovske panstvi diky zadluzeni Petra Voka patrilo uz od zacatku 17.stol. cisari Rudolfu Habsburskemu. V roce 1622 ziskali panstvi styrsti Eggenbergove od Ferdinanda II. za financni prispevky na cisarovy valecne vydaje.
I rod Eggenbergu ale vymrel a v roce 1719 zdedili jejich panstvi Schwarzenberkove. Ti venovali pivovaru velkou peci. Za jejich vlady byl pivovar nejvetsi v celem panstvi. Zacali dovazet kvalitnejsi chmel ze severnich Cech, v 80.letech 19.stoleti zavedli parni provoz a nove strojni vybaveni.
Po 2.svetove valce jim byl pivovar spolu s celym panstvim vyvlastnen a pivovar fungoval dal jako statni podnik v ramci budejovickych pivovaru.
The history of brewing in Cesky Krumlov
is probably as old as the town itself. Beer was brewed here as early as in 13th century – high quality beer for the nobility, thin and watery beer for the servants, monks and harvesters. The lords’ brewery and malting house were situated in the fourth castle courtyard.
From time immemorial, the town itself also had at least one brewery. Beer was undoubtedly brewed in the town as early as in the 14th century. In 1347 Peter I of Rožmberk awarded Krumlov the privilege to built and run taverns and a brewery. In those days both barley (which is prepared here today) and wheat beer was brewed. Wheat beer was even more popular and therefore more lucrative.
Until 1555 Krumlov, in fact, consisted of two independent towns – the first one was Latrán, which was located below the castle and the second one was Krumlov, which was situated on the farther side of the river and around the square. Each of them had its own town-hall and brewery. There were frequent disputes between these two towns and one of the most serious was for the privilege to brew wheat beer. In 1459 Latrán was granted brewing rights equal to Krumlov; nevertheless, in 1503 this privilege passed solely to Krumlov town. In 1555 Vilém of Rožmberk, unable to stand the never-ending squabbling, united the two parts and called the newly created town Krumlov.
In the 16th century the capacity of the lords’ brewery was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand. This was not surprising, as it is chronicled that every eighth house in the town was a tavern in those times. That was why Vilém of Rožmberk had a new brewery built in the fore-castle area in 1560. A year later, Jakub Krcín of Jelcany built a water pipe to bring high-quality water to the brewery, which was a great break-through. According to the contemporary historical sources, Vilém profited from this brewery remarkably, as 50% of the Rožmberks’ incomes came from it.
In 1611 the Rožmberk House died out. The last Rožmberk nobleman, Peter Vok, ran into debts, which resulted in the Krumlov manor passing into the hands of the emperor, Rudolf of Habsburk. In 1622 the emperor Ferdinand II gave the Krumlov manor to the House of Eggenberg to reimburse them for their war expenses.
When the House of Eggenberg died out in 1719, their manor passed to the House of Schwarzenberg. They operated the brewery very carefully. Under their rule, this brewery became the biggest one in the whole manor. They used high-quality hops from north Bohemia and in the 1880s introduced steam power and new machinery.
After World War II, the state expropriated the whole manor and incorporated the brewery into the state-owned syndicate of Ceské Budejovice breweries.