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Ludolphine number :: Ludolfovo cislo

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Hidden : 03/13/2009
Difficulty:
3.5 out of 5
Terrain:
2 out of 5

Size: Size:   regular (regular)

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EN: 14. march pi celebrate it's birthday. Also Albert Einstein was born on this day (1879).
SK: 14. marca oslavuje cislo pi svoje narodeniny. Na tento den tiez pripada vyrocie narodenia Alberta Einsteina (1879)



EN:
Dutch mathematician Ludolph van Ceulen was born on January 28, 1540 in Hildesheime, Germany. Since 1600 he was teaching on a local technical school arithmetics and military engineering. He wrote a ot of papers, most famous of them being "On the Circle".
Van Ceulen became famous his calculation of 35-decimal value of pi constant, based on sided polygon. He spend most of his life on it and his result is engraved on his thombstone. Van Ceulen died on December 31, 1610 in the Dutch city of Leiden.
The fact that the proportion between a circle circumference and diameter is constant is known for several thousand years. We are unable to tell when people first noticed this fact and the oldest values for this proportion were probably established simply by measurement.

Small history of pi constant:
- the Old Testament states the value of the constant to be 3;
- egyptian Rhind Mathematical Papyrus dated cca 1650 b.c. specifies the value as 256/81 (3.160494);
- probably the first theoretical calculation of pi was done by Archimedes (287 - 212 b.c.) resulting in approximate value between 223/71 and 22/7;
- around 150 a.d. greek mathematician Ptolemaios calculated the value of pi to 337/120 (3.1416);
- around 470 a.d. chinese mathematician Cu Cung Cih came to the conclusion that the value of pi lies between 3.1415926 and 3.1415927;
- arab mathematician Al-Kashi correctly calculated the 14-decimal value of pi around 1430;
- in 1596 Ludolph van Ceulen calculated the 35-decimal value of pi, giving it its name "Ludolphine number";
- in 1709 mathematician Labbert from Wales suggested greek lower case pi letter as a symbol for the constant;
- in 1761 german mathematician Lambert proved that pi is an irrational number;
- in 1882 another german mathematician Lindemann proved that pi is a transcendental number.
Thanks to the computers we can now calculate the pi constant to hundreds of billions of decimal places.

Cache:
the coordinates shown in the header will not bring you to the cache directly. This is a two-stage cache. Five-place digit sequence starting at 58231'st decimal of pi (N 48°AB.CDE') and five-place digit sequence starting at 76001'st decimal of pi (E 017°FG.HIJ') are the minutes parts of the location at which you will find a time-limited task for which you'll only need the knowledge of mathematicians from the end of nineteenth century...


SK:
Holandsky matematik Ludolph van Ceulen sa narodil 28. januara 1540 v Hildesheime v Nemecku, kde od roku 1600 vyucoval na technickej skole aritmetiku a vojenske stavitelstvo. Napisal mnoho prac, z ktorych jedna z najdolezitejsich bola „O kruznici“.
Van Ceulen sa preslavil svojim vypoctom konstanty pi, ktoru spocital na 35 desatinnych miest, k comu pouzil mnohouholnik. Vypoctu venoval vacsinu svojho zivota a svoj vysledok ma vyryty na nahrobnom kameni. Van Ceulen zomrel 31. decembra 1610 v holandskom meste Leiden.
Skutocnost, ze pomer obvodu kruhu k jeho priemeru je konstantna je znama uz niekolko tisic rokov. Kedy si to ludia vsimli sa uz zistit neda. Najstarsie hodnoty tohoto pomeru boli zrejme zistene meranim.

Historia konstanty v skratke:
- v starom zakone je hodnota konstanty uvadzana ako 3;
- okolo 1650 p.n.l. v egyptskom rhindskom papyruse je uvedena hodnota 256/81 (3,160494);
- zrejme prvy teoreticky vypocet previedol Archimedes (287-212 p.n.l.). Dostal pribliznu hodnotu medzi zlomkami 223/71 a 22/7;
- okolo roku 150 grecky matematik Ptolemaios dosiel k vysledku 377/120 (3,1416);
- okolo roku 470 cinsky matematik Cu Cung Cih uviedol hodnotu v intervale (3,1415926 az 3,1415927);
- okolo roku 1430 arabsky matematik Al-Kashi konstantu spravne spocital na 14 desetinnych miest;
- v roku 1596 holandsky matematik Ludolph Van Ceulen toto cislo spravne spocital na 35 miest a prave po nom je oznacovane ako "Ludolfovo";
- v roku 1706 walesky matematik Wiliam Jones navrhol oznacovat tuto konstantu malym greckym pismenom pi;
- v 1761 nemecky matematik Lambert dokazal, ze pi je iracionalne cislo;
- v 1882 dalsi nemecky matematik Lindemann dokazal, ze pi je transcendentne cislo.
V dnesnej ere pocitacov je cislo pi spocitane na stovky miliard desatinnych miest!

Skrysa:
suradnice v hlavicke vas k skrysi nedovedu, cesta k nej je dvojstupnova. Patcislie zacinajuce na 58231. desatinnom mieste (N 48°AB.CDE') a patcislie zacinajuce na 76001. desatinnom mieste (E 017°FG.HIJ') cisla pi vam oznacuju minuty suradnic lokality, kde vas caka casovo limitovana uloha. Na jej vyriesenie vam budu postacovat vedomosti matematikov z konca devatnasteho storocia...

Legendy



Táto keška bola nominovaná na Slovak GeoAwards 2014

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