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08/07/1941

A cache by rixwolff Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 05/03/2010
Difficulty:
2 out of 5
Terrain:
2 out of 5

Size: Size: small (small)

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Geocache Description:

Jaunjelgavas ebreju kapi. Holokausta upuru pieminas komplekss. Jaunjelgava Jewish cemetery. Holocaust memorial.

ENGLISH

The cache is hidden in Jaunjelgava Jewish cemetery next to the Holocaust memorial (not inside of it). Container is a waterproof glass jar.


The history of Jaunjelgava starts a long time ago. Already in the XIII century there was an ancient Selonian castle, which was destroyed by German Crusades of the Teutonic Order. In 1646 Elizabeth Magdalene, the widow of Friedrich, the duke of Courland, instructed to rebuild the settlement and the next year it was granted town status and named Friedrichstadt. In 1795 it was annexed together with Courland, by Russia. In the 1920s there was another name change, to Jaunjelgava.

The first Jews came to the place from the surrounding villages, and others came later from White Russia and Lithuania. At the beginning of the 19th century a community was organised and a cemetery was open. By the year 1881 there were 4128 Jews (71% of the population). From that year the community began to grow smaller.

In 1915, during WWI the community was exiled, together with the other Jews of Courland, to the interior of Russia. After the war only few people returned, so that the Jews were now a minority in the town. In 1935 there were 561 Jews, among a population of 2153, in the town.

In June 1941 the Soviet retaliatory authorities banished wealthy Jews and their families to Siberia. A week later the German army attacked the USSR. In the absence of a government in the first days of war, gangs of Latvian fascists, headed by Viktors Arajs, began to be active in the town. The Jews were concentrated in the synagogue and then taken to the place 3-4 km outside the town, where they were shot to death and buried in a mass grave. According to one version there were already no Jews in the town when the Germans occupied it in the beginning of July.

According to another version, the Germans assembled those Jews who were in the town after the occupation in the synagogue. On the 7th of August a group of young Jewish men was taken to the Serene forest, a distance of about 8 km from the town and there ordered to dig pits. On the completion of the work all Jews were shot and buried there. During the first weeks of the war 167 families – 542 people were wiped out.

After the war the survivors brought the remains of those who had been murdered, for burial in the Jewish cemetery. A monument was set up in their memory.

LATVISKI

Slepnis atrodas Jaunjelgavas ebreju kapos, blakus holokausta upuru pieminas kompleksam. Konteiners ir neliela stikla burcina.


Jaunjelgavas pilsetas vesture sniedzas tala senatne. 13. gadsimta Jaunjelgavas vieta atradas sena selu pils, ko nopostija vacu krustneši. 1646. gada hercoga Fridriha atraitne Elizabete Magdalena uzdeva saviem padotajiem atjaunot šo apdzivoto vietu. Nakama gada janvari vina pieškir tai pilsetas statusu un sava miruša vira pieminai nosauc to par Fridrihštati. 1795. gada, kopa ar Kurzemi, ta tika pievienota Krievijai. Pec neatkarigas Latvijas valsts nodibinašanas pilsetai pieškirts Jaunjelgavas nosaukums.

Pirmie ebreju iedzivotaji ienaca šeit no apkart esošajam apdzivotam vietam, citi ieceloja velak no Baltkrievijas un Lietuvas. 19. gadsimta sakuma izveidojas ebreju kopiena un tika atklata ari pirma kapseta. Iedzivotaju skaits palielinajas lidz 1881. gadam, kad tas bija sasniedzis 5820 cilvekus (no tiem 4128, vai 71% bija ebreji). Tikai velak, kad sakas masveida ebreju emigracija no Krievijas, pilsetas iedzivotaju skaits, un taja skaita ari ebreju, saka samazinaties.

1915. gada, sakoties Pirmajam Pasaules karam, kopa ar Kurzemes ebrejiem kopiena tika izsutita uz Krievijas plašumiem. Pec kara tikai neliela dala ebreju atgriezas, un Latvijas Republikas laika ebreji Jaunjelgava bija mazakuma. 1935. gada no pilsetas 2153 iedzivotajiem 561 bija ebrejs.

1941. gada 14. junija padomju represivie organi deporteja no Latvijas vairakus tukstošus gimenu. Nedelu velak pec deportacijam nacistiska Vacija uzbruka PSRS. Kara pirmajas dienas, mainoties varai, pilseta aktivizejas vietejas nacistiskas grupas. Vairaku slepkavibas akciju rezultata tika iznicinati visi pilsetas ebreji. Pec vienas versijas, vaciešiem ienakot julija beigas, pilseta vairs nebija neviena ebreja.

Saskana ar citu versiju, vacieši sadzina sinagoga tos ebrejus, kas bija palikuši pilseta pec okupacijas. 7. augusta vini izvelejas pašus stiprakos un jaunakos ebrejus, aizveda vinus uz Serenes mežu (8 km no pilsetas) rakt bedri. Kad milziga bedre bija izrakta, iedzina taja visus ebrejus, kur vinus nošava un apraka. Kara pirmo nedelu laika tika iznicinatas 167 gimenes – 542 cilveki.

Pec kara beigam izdzivojušie parapbedija nogalinato mirstigas atliekas ebreju kapseta. Vinu pieminai tika uzcelts pieminas komplekss.

Informacjas avots:
Jaunjelgavas ebreju kopienas vestures lappuses

Additional Hints (Decrypt)

RA: hfrq gb or n gerr
YI: xnqervm ovwn xbxf

Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)



 

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