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Brave New World - Aldous Huxley [1932] Traditional Cache

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Brave New World
Aldous Huxley (1932)
Admirável Mundo Novo


Admirável Mundo Novo (Brave New World na versão original em língua inglesa) é um livro escrito por Aldous Huxley e publicado em 1932 que narra um hipotético futuro onde as pessoas são pré-condicionadas biologicamente e condicionadas psicologicamente a viver em harmonia com as leis e regras sociais, dentro de uma sociedade organizada por castas. A sociedade desse "futuro" criado por Huxley não possui a ética religiosa e valores morais que regem a sociedade actual. Qualquer dúvida e insegurança dos cidadãos era dissipada com o consumo da droga sem efeitos colaterais aparentes chamada "soma". As crianças têm educação sexual desde os mais tenros anos da vida. O conceito de família também não existe.

O personagem Bernard Marx sente-se insatisfeito com o mundo onde vive, em parte porque é fisicamente diferente dos integrantes da sua casta. Num reduto onde vivem pessoas dentro dos moldes do passado uma espécie de "reserva histórica" - semelhante às atuais reservas indígenas - onde se preservam os costumes "selvagens" do passado (que corresponde à época em que o livro foi escrito), Bernard encontra uma mulher oriunda da civilização, Linda, e o filho dela, John. Bernard vê uma possibilidade de conquista de respeito social pela apresentação de John como um exemplar dos selvagens à sociedade civilizada.

Para a sociedade civilizada, ter um filho era um ato obsceno e impensável, ter uma crença religiosa era um ato de ignorância e de desrespeito à sociedade. Linda, quando chegada à civilização foi rejeitada pela sociedade.

O livro desenvolve-se a partir do contraponto entre esta hipotética civilização ultra-estruturada (com o fim de obter a felicidade de todos os seus membros, qualquer que seja a sua posição social) e as impressões humanas e sensíveis do "selvagem" John que, visto como algo aberrante, cria um fascínio estranho entre os habitantes do "Admirável Mundo Novo".

Aldous Huxley escreveu, mais tarde, outro livro, chamado Retorno ao Admirável Mundo Novo: um ensaio onde demonstrava que muitas das "profecias" do seu romance estavam a ser realizadas graças ao "progresso" científico, no que diz respeito à manipulação da vontade de seres humanos.

Aldous Leonard Huxley (Godalming, 26 de Julho de 1894 — Los Angeles, 22 de Novembro de 1963) foi um escritor inglês e um dos mais proeminentes membros da família Huxley. Passou parte da sua vida nos Estados Unidos, e viveu em Los Angeles de 1937 até à sua morte, em 1963. Mais conhecido pelos seus romances, como Brave New World e diversos ensaios, Huxley também editou a revista Oxford Poetry e publicou contos, poesias, literatura de viagem e guiões de filmes.

Foi um entusiasta do uso responsável do LSD como catalisador dos processos mentais do indivíduo, em busca do ápice da condição humana e de maior desenvolvimento das suas potencialidades.

Fonte: wikipedia


Brave New World
Aldous Huxley (1932)


Brave New World is a novel written in 1931 by Aldous Huxley and published in 1932. Set in London of AD 2540 (632 A.F. in the book), the novel anticipates developments in reproductive technology and sleep-learning that combine to change society. The future society is an embodiment of the ideals that form the basis of futurology. Huxley answered this book with a reassessment in an essay, Brave New World Revisited (1958) and with his final work, a novel titled Island (1962).

In 1999, the Modern Library ranked Brave New World fifth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.

Huxley wrote Brave New World in 1931 while he was living in Italy (he moved to the neighborhood of Eagle Rock in Los Angeles in 1937). By this time, Huxley had already established himself as a writer and social satirist. He was a contributor to Vanity Fair and Vogue magazines, had published a collection of his poetry (The Burning Wheel, 1916) and four successful satirical novels: Crome Yellow (1921), Antic Hay (1923), Those Barren Leaves (1925) and Point Counter Point (1928). Brave New World was Huxley's fifth novel and first dystopian work.

Huxley said that Brave New World was inspired by the utopian novels of H.G. Wells, including A Modern Utopia (1905) and Men Like Gods (1923). Wells' hopeful vision of the future's possibilities gave Huxley the idea to begin writing a parody of the novel, which became Brave New World. Unlike the most popular optimist utopian novels of the time, Huxley sought to provide a frightening vision of the future. Huxley referred to Brave New World as a "negative utopia" (see dystopia), somewhat influenced by Wells' own The Sleeper Awakes (dealing with subjects like corporate tyranny and behavioral conditioning) and the works of D. H. Lawrence.

George Orwell believed that Brave New World must be partly derived from the novel We by Yevgeny Zamyatin.

Huxley visited the newly opened and technologically advanced Brunner and Mond plant, part of Imperial Chemical Industries, or ICI, Billingham, United Kingdom, and gives a fine and detailed account of the processes he saw. The introduction to the most recent print[vague] of Brave New World states that Huxley was inspired to write the classic novel by this Billingham visit.

Although the novel is set in the future it deals with contemporary issues of the early 20th century. The Industrial Revolution had transformed the world. Mass production had made cars, telephones, and radios relatively cheap and widely available throughout the developed world. The political, cultural, economic and sociological upheavals of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War (1914–1918) were resonating throughout the world as a whole and the individual lives of most people. Accordingly, many of the novel's characters are named after widely recognized, influential and in many cases contemporary people, for example, Polly Trotsky (Leon Trotsky), Benito Hoover (Benito Mussolini; Herbert Hoover), Lenina Crowne (Vladimir Lenin; John Crowne), Fanny Crowne (Fanny Brawne; John Crowne), Mustapha Mond (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; Alfred Mond and Ludwig Mond, at whose factory Huxley worked for a time, which helped to inspire the novel), Helmholtz Watson (Hermann von Helmholtz; John B. Watson), Henry Foster (Henry Ford), Bernard Marx (George Bernard Shaw; Karl Marx), Morgana Rothschild (The Rothschild banking family), Joanna Diesel (Rudolf Diesel), Fifi Bradlaugh (Charles Bradlaugh), Sarojini Engels (Sarojini Naidu; Friedrich Engels), Clara Deterding (Henri Deterding), Tom Kawaguchi (Ekai Kawaguchi) and Herbert Bakunin (Herbert George Wells; Mikhail Bakunin).

Huxley used the setting and characters from his science fiction novel to express widely held opinions, particularly the fear of losing individual identity in the fast-paced world of the future. An early trip to the United States gave Brave New World much of its character. Not only was Huxley outraged by the culture of youth, commercial cheeriness, sexual promiscuity and the inward-looking nature of many Americans, he had also found a book by Henry Ford on the boat to America. There was a fear of Americanization in Europe. Thus seeing America firsthand, and from reading the ideas and plans of one of its foremost citizens, Huxley was spurred to write Brave New World with America in mind. The "feelies" are his response to the "talkie" motion pictures, and the sex-hormone chewing gum is a parody of the ubiquitous chewing gum, which was something of a symbol of America at that time. In an article in the 4 May 1935 issue of the Illustrated London News, G. K. Chesterton explained that Huxley was revolting against the "Age of Utopias". Much of the discourse on man's future before 1914 was based on the thesis that humanity would solve all economic and social issues. In the decade following the war the discourse shifted to an examination of the causes of the catastrophe. The works of H. G. Wells and George Bernard Shaw on the promises of socialism and a World State were then viewed as the ideas of naive optimists.

After the Age of Utopias came what we may call the American Age, lasting as long as the Boom. Men like Ford or Mond seemed to many to have solved the social riddle and made capitalism the common good. But it was not native to us; it went with a buoyant, not to say blatant optimism, which is not our negligent or negative optimism. Much more than Victorian righteousness, or even Victorian self-righteousness, that optimism has driven people into pessimism. For the Slump brought even more disillusionment than the War. A new bitterness, and a new bewilderment, ran through all social life, and was reflected in all literature and art. It was contemptuous, not only of the old Capitalism, but of the old Socialism. Brave New World is more of a revolt against Utopia than against Victoria.

For Brave New World, Huxley unsurprisingly received nearly universal criticism from contemporary critics, although his work was later embraced. Even the few sympathetic critics tended to temper their praises with disparaging remarks.

Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Best known for his novels including Brave New World and a wide-ranging output of essays, Huxley also edited the magazine Oxford Poetry, and published short stories, poetry, travel writing, film stories and scripts. Huxley spent the later part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death.

Aldous Huxley was a humanist, pacifist, and satirist, and he was latterly interested in spiritual subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism. He is also well known for advocating and taking psychedelics.

By the end of his life Huxley was widely recognized to be one of the pre-eminent intellectuals of his time and respected as an important researcher into visual communication and sight-related theories as well.

Source: wikipedia

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