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Every Scar Tells A Story

A cache by Dr Freddo Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 10/11/2014
Difficulty:
3.5 out of 5
Terrain:
4.5 out of 5

Size: Size: other (other)

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Geocache Description:

यस अमा दब्लम आधार शिविर ट्रयाक मा एक आराम लिनुहोस् र नजिकैको भूगोल अध्ययन। तपाईं एक घाटी को किनारा मा एक हिमसंहति जम्मा मा खडा छन्। यो घाटी सुविधा एक हिमनदों पोखरी मा विस्फोट बाढी (GLOF) मा गठन भएको थियो।

Take a rest on the Ama Dablam Base Camp track and study the nearby geology. You are standing on a glacial moraine at the edge of a canyon. This canyon feature was formed in a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF).


एक हिमसंहति पोखरी बनाउन एक बाँध अचानक गर्नुहोस् गर्दा एक GLOF हुन्छ। यो बाँध हिमनदी बरफ वा एक टर्मिनल मलबे मिलेर गर्न सक्छन्। घटना ताल, भूकम्प, वा कुण्डमा रक, हिउँ वा बरफ को एक हिमस्खलन अन्तर्गत भूक्षय, पानी दबाब, ज्वालामुखी विस्फोटन गर्न को कारण हुन सक्छ। हिमनदों ताल भोल्युम भिन्नता छ, तर पानी को घन मिटर करोडौं गर्न लाखौं पकड सक्छ। यस युक्त बरफ वा हिमसंहति तलछट को विपत्तिजनक असफल दिन मिनेट को समय मा यो पानी जारी गर्न सक्छन्। यी घटनाहरू भूमि र आइसल्याण्ड, नेपाल, भुटान, स्विट्जरल्याण्ड र क्यानाडा सहित धेरै देशहरूमा जनसंख्यालाई एक गम्भीर खतरा हो।

पछिल्लो २०३४ को लागि, एक हिमसंहति ताल पूर्व सूचीकृत समन्वय को बारे मा ५ किमी दक्षिण नर हिमनदी तल अमा दब्लम को पक्ष मा राख्नु। एक GLOF घटना २०३४ भाद्र १८ शनिवार मा भयो र पानी को एक अनुमान ५००,००० घन मिटर (टन) जारी। तीन मानिसहरू कारण घटना मृत्यु भएको रिपोर्ट थिए। ३५ कि लागि सबै पुल बहाव नष्ट थिए। यस GLOF घटनाको वास्तविक कारण अज्ञात छ। यो अमा दब्लम मा एक उच्च ऊंचाई मा स्थित एक सानो हिमसंहति ताल आफ्नो बाँध फुटेर खोलिन ताल पैदा नर कुण्डमा छुट्टी जब GLOF घटेको अनुमान लगाएको छ। यो २०३४ GLOF पुरातन हिमनदी मलबे को गंभीर भूक्षय कारण। बाढी देखि चोटहरू पाङबोचे गाउँको माथि पहाड को अनुहार हावी। पृथ्वी क्यास को घाटी तुरुन्त आसन्न स्थित छ। यो हिमनदी जम्मा एक नाजुक र शिथिल छोटा फारम मा अनियमित वितरण ढुङ्गा, रोडा र आकार को एक विस्तृत श्रृंखला को बालुवा विशेषता हो। स्थान को आसपास भूगोल ज्यादातर बरफ सृष्टि हिमसंहति उपत्यका र धेरै अग्लो पहाड को विशिष्ट यू-आकृति छ। भारी पानी प्रवाह घटना हिमसंहति मलबे मा एक गहिरो V आकारको घाटी खुदी भएको छ। यस GLOF घटना को निशान लगभग ४० वर्ष नर हिमसंहति ताल को पतन पछि स्पष्ट छ।

अमा दब्लम संसारको सबैभन्दा सुन्दर पहाड को एउटा छ, यो शेर्पाहरू पवित्र छ। नाम अमा दब्लम "आमाको गहना बक्स" अर्थ र परम्परागत शेर्पा महिला लगाउने एक धार्मिक हार बुझाउँछ। पर्वतमा उच्च एक उभाडना हार जस्तै हो। पहाड को पक्ष एक आमा को विस्तारित हतियार जस्तै।

त्यसैले अब केही पृथ्वी विज्ञान गर्न। निम्न प्रश्नहरूको लागि जवाफ पेस गर्नुहोस्। -> सूचीकृत गर्न सटे घाटी लगभग २०० मीटर चौडा र २०० मीटर गहिरो छ निर्देशांक। यो घाटी को चौडाई लागि सीमित कारक के हो? तपाईं घाटी गहिरो प्राप्त होला? -> यस GLOF एक अनुमान आधा पानी को एक लाख टन जारी। तपाईं घाटी बरु कहीं भन्दा आफ्नो स्थान गर्न आसन्न स्थिति मा गठन किन एक कारण पहिचान गर्न सक्नुहुन्छ? आफ्नो तर्क, व्याख्या

A GLOF occurs when a dam forming a glacial lake suddenly collapses. The dam can consist of glacier ice or a terminal moraine. The event may be due to to erosion, water pressure buildup, volcanic eruptions under the lake, an earthquake, or an avalanche of rock, snow or ice into the lake. Glacial lake volumes vary, but may hold millions to hundreds of millions of cubic metres of water. Catastrophic failure of the containing ice or glacial sediment can release this water over periods of minutes to days. These events are a serious threat to the land and populations in many countries including Iceland, Nepal, Bhutan, Switzerland and Canada.

Prior to 1977, a glacial lake lay on the side of Ama Dablam below the Nare Glacier about 5k south east of the listed coordinates. A GLOF event occurred on 3 September 1977 and released an estimated 500,000 cubic meters (tonnes) of water. Three people were reported to have died due to the event. All bridges for 35 km downstream were destroyed. The actual cause of the GLOF event is unknown. It is speculated that the GLOF occurred when a small glacial lake located at a higher elevation on Ama Dablam discharged into the Nare Lake causing the lake to overtop its damming ice cored moraine. The 1977 GLOF caused severe erosion of ancient glacier moraines. Scars from the flood dominate the face of the mountain above the village of Panboche. The earthcache is located on the moraine immediately adjacent to the canyon of the Imja Khola River. The moraine deposits are characterized by randomly distributed rocks, gravel and sand of a wide range of sizes in a friable and loosely compacted form. The surrounding geography of the location is mostly U-shaped typical of ice created glacial valleys and very tall mountains. The huge water flow event has carved a deep V-shaped canyon in the glacial moraine. The scar of the GLOF event is apparent almost 40 years after the collapse of the Nare glacial lake.

Ama Dablam is one of the most beautiful mountains in the world, it is sacred to the Sherpas. The name Ama Dablam means "mother's jewel box" and refers to a religious necklace worn by traditional Sherpa women. A bulge high on the mountain resembles the necklace. The sides of the mountain resemble the extended arms of a mother.

So now to some earthscience. Please submit answers for the following questions.
->Adjacent to the listed coordinates the canyon is approximately 200m wide and 200m deep. What is the limiting factor for the width of the canyon? Do you think the canyon will get deeper?
->The GLOF released an estimated 0.5Mt of water. Can you identify a reason why the canyon formed in the position adjacent to your location rather than somewhere else? Explain your reasoning.
References
-Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in Nepal, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, March 2011
-Erosion and Sedimentation Caused by Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Nepal and Bhutan Himalayas, Daisuke HIGAKI and Go SATO
-Modelling outburst floods from Himalayan moraine-dammed glacial lakes, Matt Westoby
-Wikipedia

Additional Hints (Decrypt)

Yvfgra sbe gur snyy bs ebpxf naq teniry va gur pnalba.

Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)



 

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