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Traditional Geocache

O Ascensor do Lavra / The Lavra Funicular

A cache by rifkindsss Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 8/21/2005
Difficulty:
2 out of 5
Terrain:
2.5 out of 5

Size: Size: small (small)

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Geocache Description:



PT:Uma pequena visita a mais um monumento rolante.

EN:A little visit to a rolling monument.


Alguns conselhos:

  • A pedra de calçada é escorregadia! Cuidado!
  • Cuidado com os ascensores! Não se deixem atropelar!
  • A recepção de satélites é bastante precária, mas não há muito que enganar...

Some words of advice:

  • Beware of the sidewalks! They may be very slippery!
  • Watch out for the trams! Don't let yourselves be runned over!
  • Satellite coverage is rather bad, but there shouldn't be too much trouble...

Caches relacionadas / Related caches:


PT: O Ascensor do Lavra

Vivia-se o ano de 1882. Passara a época dos 'omnibus'. O caminho de ferro 'Larmanjat' entoava o seu canto de cisne e a Companhia Carris, embora mantivesse a tracção animal, procedia já a experiências visando a sua substituição. Lisboa era percorrida por carruagens de várias empresas de transportes que coexistiam num ambiente de competição pelas preferências do público quando não pela supremacia sobre todas as outras. Um ponto comum as ligava - o tipo de tracção. Carros da Carris ou da Rippert, do Chora ou da Lusitânia todos utilizavam a tracção animal para se deslocarem. Contudo, frente às rampas mais íngremes, os seus esforços soçobravam. Em 3 de Junho desse ano foi fundada a Companhia dos Ascensores Mecânicos de Lisboa a qual, segundo os seus prórios estatutos, se propunha (...) a construção e exploração de ascensores mecânicos, ou planos inclinados, movidos por tracção mecânica (...).

O primeiro a ver a Luz do dia foi o da Calçada do Lavra estabelecendo ligação entre o Largo da Anunciada e a Travessa do Forno do Torel.

Em meados de Abril de 1884 já as obras da sua construção tinham terminado. O sistema adoptado era de cremalheira e cabo por contrapeso de água. Consistia fundamentalmente em 2 carros, ligados por um cabo subterrâneo, que subiam e desciam alternada e simultâneamente em 2 vias paralelas assentes ao nível do chão. Na parte externa das linhas, encostadas aos carris, existiam 2 cremalheiras nas quais entravam os dentes de rodas dentadas fixadas nos eixos dos carros. O movimento era determinado pelo peso da água que na Estação Superior era adicionada ao carro descendente em reservatório apropriado e despejada quando no Largo da Anunciada. Cada carro, com capacidade para transportar 24 passageiros, estava equipado com um travão manual e um automotor que funcionava de imediato caso se desse a fractura do cabo.

A inauguração teve cabo no dia 19 de Abril de 1884 após vistoria camarária presidida pelo engenheiro Ressano Garcia. Já nessa altura a Companhia procedia à montagem de uma máquina a vapor destinada a acudir a qualquer interrupção no fornecimento de água; a 15 de Novembro de 1885 a Direcção ordenava que começasse a funcionar a título experimental, pesando-se o combustível, a fim de concluir sobre o que seria mais conveniente utilizar, a água ou o carvão. Os resultados devem ter sido favoráveis à máquina a vapor pois que, em 1898, funcionavam no Lavra duas caldeiras sendo uma de origem alemã, fabricada pela Maschinnenfabrick Essling e a outra de origem suiça, construída por Theodor Bell & Co.

Alguns incidentes ensombraram os primeiros anos de vida deste ascensor. O mais grave ocorreu em Dezembro de 1897 quando os dois carros e grande parte da linha ficaram inutilizados devido a uma fractura no cabo provocada pela utilização simultânea dos dois travões. Quando meses mais tarde voltou a funcionar os carros tinham, ao que parece, novas carroçarias a que era necessário levantar os estribos para não roçarem nas paredes.

Em 1912 a Companhia, remodelada já desde 1884 com o nome de Nova Companhia dos Ascensores Mecânicos de Lisboa, assinou com a Câmara Municipal um novo contrato de concessão pelo qual lhe era permitida a electrificação de todas as suas linhas. Tendo assegurado o fornecimento de energia através da Central Eléctrica de Santos, propriedade da Carris, iniciou as obras em 1914.

O processo adoptado era também extensivo aos ascensores da Glória e Bica tendo-se os trabalhos prolongado por mais de um ano.

A via era composta pelos carris em que assentavam os rodados dos carros e pela fenda onde passava o cabo de aço que unia os carros, tendo a cremalheira desaparecido. Os carros fornecidos pela Electric Car Cº., pesavam cerca de 10 toneladas e funcionavam por meio de 2 motores eléctricos de 25 cavalos cada, ligados em série, de modo que só se podiam pôr em andamento com a manobra conjunta dos seus guarda-freios bastando contudo a intervenção de um só para os imobilizar. Estavam equipados com 2 tipos de travão, um de garra, que actuava apertando os carris centrais entre duas sapatas e o outro por pressão sobre os carris. A transmissão da corrente aos motores era feita através de pantógrafos instalados no tejadilho. As carroçarias eram de madeira cor de mogno e com bancos dispostos longitudinalmente, prevendo-se uma lotação de 20 a 22 passageiros sentados.

Em Dezembro de 1915 o ascensor do Lavra retomou o serviço. Em 1826, por dissolução da Nova Companhia dos Ascensores Mecânicos de Lisboa passou a ser propriedade da Companhia Carris.

Os trabalhos de conservação a que periodicamente a Companhia o submete deram aos carros novas roupagens passando o amarelo a ser a cor dominante.

Tendo comemorado um século de existência em 1984, o ascensor da Calçada do Lavra detém o privilégio de ser o 1º transporte que Lisboa viu defrontando com êxito uma das suas encostas mais íngremes e encontra-se, tal como as suas congéneres da Glória e Bica, desde Fevereiro de 2002 classificado como Monumento Nacional.

EN: The Lavra Funicular

It was 1882. The age of the omnibus had gone; the 'Larmanjat' railway was singing its swan song, and Carris was still running its transport system with carriages drawn by animals. But Carris was also experimenting with ways of replacing this form of transport. Lisbon was criss-crossed by carriages belonging to various transport companies. They coexisted but competed against each other in attracting the public, when they were not trying to reign supreme. One thing was common to all of them: the type of traction used. The carriages might be Carris or Rippert or Chora or Lusitania, but they all used animals as their power source. The efforts made by the animals, however, were in vain when they faced the steepest slopes.

On the 3rd of June of that year the Lisbon Mechanical Lift Company (Companhia dos Ascensores Mecânicos de Lisboa) was founded. Its aim, in the words of its articles, was (...) to build and operate mechanical lifts, on sloping terrain, propelled by mechanical means.

The first to see the light of day was the Calçada do Lavra, which ran from the Largo da Anunciada to the Travessa do Forno do Torel.

Work was completed in the middle of April 1884. The system used was a rack and cable with water as a counterweight. Basically, there were two carriages, linked by an underground cable, one of which moved up and the other down simultaneously on two parallel tracks laid at ground level. On the outside of the lines, by the side of the rails there were two racks which took the cogs fitted on the axis of the carriages. Motion was conditional on the weight of water which was pumped into a special tank on the carriage at the top and emptied out at the bottom, in the Largo da Anunciada. The carriages could take 24 passengers each and they had both a manual brake and an automatic system which cut in immediately if the cable snapped.

The funicular was opened on April 19, 1884 after an inspection by the city council engineer Ressano Garcia. From very early on, the Company set up a steam engine in order to cut in if there was any break in the water supply. On November 15, 1885, the management ordered this to be started on a trial basis and the fuel weight was gauged. The purpose of this was to find out whether water or coal was more convenient to use. The results would seem to have been on the side of the steam engine because we know that in 1898 there were two boilers working on the Lavra line. One of them was German, manufactured by the Maschinnnenfabrik Essling and the other was Swiss, manufactured by Theodor Bell & Co.

Several incidents darkened the scene during the first years that the funicular was operating. The most serious was in December 1897, when the two carriages and a large part of the line had to be taken out of service because of a fracture in the line caused by the simultaneous use of the two brakes. When they were back in service a few months later, there were apparently new carriages which had to have the boarding platform raised to avoid any scraping along the walls. In 1884, the Company was reorganised and was now called The New Lisbon Mechanical Lift Company (Nova Companhia dos Ascensores Mecânicos de Lisboa).

In 1912 they signed an agreement with the City Council for a new concession which would allow them to electrify all of their lines. The works began in 1914, after ensuring the energy supply from the Santos power station, which was owned by Carris.

The system was also used on the Glória and Bica funiculars, and the works continued for another year.

The line consisted of two tracks where the carriage wheels fitted and by a slot where the cable linking the carriages was laid. The rack was not used any more. The carriages were supplied by the Electric Car Co., they weighed nearly 10 tons and they were powered by two 25 horsepower electric motors in tandem. In this way, they could only be worked if the two brake operators set off together, although each one of them could stop the carriages alone. They were equipped with two types of brake, one of them a clamp which worked by gripping the central rails between two pads and the other by pressure on the rails. Electricity was supplied by pantographs fitted on the roof. The bodywork was in wood, painted the colour of mahogany and the benches were crosswise. They could take between 20 and 22 passengers sitting down.

In December 1915, the Lavra funicular was back in service. In 1926 the company was wound up and the funicular became Carris property.

During one of the periodical maintenance operations carried out by Carris, the carriages were given a new look, the dominant colour this time being yellow.

The centenary of the Lavra funicular was celebrated in 1984 and it has the honour of being the first Lisbon transport to successfully tackle one of the city’s steepest slopes. In February 2002, along with Glória and Bica, it was classified as a national monument.



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Additional Hints (Decrypt)

Purpx gur tngr pragre, pybfr gb n pbeare.
----
Irwnz b prageb qb cbegãb, whagb n hz pnagb.

Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)



 

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Current Time:
Last Updated: on 1/19/2018 4:29:28 PM (UTC-08:00) Pacific Time (US & Canada) (12:29 AM GMT)
Rendered From:Unknown
Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum

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