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Use this space to describe your geocache location, container, and how it's hidden to your reviewer. If you've made changes, tell the reviewer what changes you made. The more they know, the easier it is for them to publish your geocache. This note will not be visible to the public when your geocache is published.

This cache has been archived.

SUp3rFM: Esta cache foi arquivada por falta de uma resposta atempada e/ou adequada perante as situações relatadas. Relembro a secção das guidelines sobre a manutenção http://support.groundspeak.com/index.php?pg=kb.page&id=307#maint :

[quote]
You are responsible for occasional visits to your cache to maintain proper working order, especially when someone reports a problem with the cache (missing, damaged, wet, etc.). You may temporarily disable your cache to let others know not to search for it until you have a chance to fix the problem. This feature is to allow you a reasonable amount of time – normally a few weeks – in which to check on your cache. If a cache is not being maintained, or has been temporarily disabled for an unreasonable length of time, we may archive the listing.

Because of the effort required to maintain a geocache, we ask that you place physical caches in your usual caching area and not while on a vacation or business trip. It is best when you live within a manageable distance from the cache placements to allow for return visits. Geocaches placed during travel may not be published unless you are able to demonstrate an acceptable maintenance plan, which must allow for a quick response to reported problems. An acceptable maintenance plan might include the username of a local geocacher who will handle maintenance issues in your absence.[/quote]

Como owner, se tiver planos para recolocar a cache, por favor, contacte-me por [url=http://www.geocaching.com/email/?u=sup3rfm]e-mail[/url].

Lembro que a eventual reactivação desta cache passará pelo mesmo processo de análise como se fosse uma nova cache, com todas as implicações que as guidelines actuais indicam.

Se no local existe algum container, por favor recolha-o a fim de evitar que se torne lixo (geolitter).

Obrigado

SUp3rFM
Geocaching.com Volunteer Cache Reviewer

More

Traditional Geocache

250th Anniversary of 1755 Lisbon Earthquake

Hidden : 11/1/2005
Difficulty:
1 out of 5
Terrain:
1.5 out of 5

Size: Size: micro (micro)

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Geocache Description:



 

Carta de James O’Hara
Lisboa, 12 de Novembro, 1755

"Querida irmã,
Sento-me para te relatar a catástrofe horrorosa que se abateu sobre a até então florescente cidade de Lisboa, agora uma cena de horror e desolação.
No primeiro dia deste mês, às nove e meia da manhã, um súbito terramoto fez tremer as suas fundações, e deixou-a em ruínas. Nesta fatal hora, as igrejas estavam cheias; e como o seu desmoronamento foi imediato, não tendo havido tempo para fugir, aqueles que lá estavam foram esmagados.
É impossível descrever o ar aterrorizado dos habitantes, tentando fugir de qualquer modo para evitar a destruição. Inúmeros acorreram à margem do rio com esperança de salvar as duas vidas por meio de embarcações. O cais da alfândega pensava-se um lugar seguro; mas infelizmente foi logo inundado, e todos aqueles que por ali fugiram, só escaparam de uma cidade em desmoronamento para ali encontrar uma morte na água. Pais e mães à procura dos seus filhos, e crianças procurando os seus pais."


O Terramoto de 1755, como ficou conhecido, aconteceu no dia 1 de Novembro de 1755 às 9h20m da manhã, resultando na quase total destruição da cidade de Lisboa e de grande parte do litoral do Algarve. O sismo foi seguido de um tsunami que se crê terá atingido a altura de 20 metros e múltiplos incêndios, tendo feito mais de 100 mil vítimas mortais. Foi um dos mais mortíferos terramotos da história.

O terramoto teve um enorme impacto na sociedade do Século XVIII, em especial na estrutura política em Portugal e tornou-se o primeiro estudo cientifico do efeito de um terramoto numa área alargada. Os geólogos modernos estimam que o sismo de 1755 atingiu 9 graus na escala Richter.

O terramoto fez-se sentir na manhã de 1 de Novembro, no feriado católico do dia de Todos-os-Santos. Relatos contemporâneos afirmam que o terramoto durou, consoante o local, entre seis minutos e 2 horas e meia, causando fissuras gigantescas de cinco metros que cortaram o centro da cidade de Lisboa. Com os vários desmoronamentos os sobreviventes procuraram refúgio na zona portuária e assistiram ao abaixamento das águas, revelando o fundo do mar, cheio de destroços de navios e cargas perdidas. Dezenas de minutos depois um enorme tsunami de 20 metros fez submergir o porto e o centro da cidade. Nas áreas que não foram afectadas pelo tsunami, o fogo logo se alastrou, e os incêndios duraram pelo menos 5 dias.

Lisboa não foi a única cidade portuguesa afectada pela catástrofe. Todo o sul de Portugal, nomeadamente o Algarve, foi atingido e a destruição foi generalizada. As ondas de choque do terramoto foram sentidas por toda a Europa e norte da África. Os tsunamis originados por este terramoto varreram desde a África do norte até ao norte da Europa, nomeadamente até à Finlândia e através do Atlântico, afectando locais como Martinica e Barbados.

De uma população de 275 mil habitantes em Lisboa, 90 mil foram mortos. Outros 10 mil foram vitimados em Marrocos. Cerca de 85% das construções de Lisboa foram destruídas, incluindo palácios famosos e bibliotecas, igrejas, hospitais e todas as estruturas. Várias das construções que sofreram pouco danos pelo terramoto foram destruídas pelo fogo que se seguiu ao abalo sísmico.

O Marquês do Pombal, primeiro-ministro de D. José, sobreviveu ao terramoto. Com o pragmatismo que caracterizou a sua governação, iniciou imediatamente a reconstrução de Lisboa. A sua rápida resolução levou a organizar equipas de bombeiros para combater os incêndios e recolher os milhares de cadáveres para evitar epidemias. O ministro e o rei, contrataram arquitectos e engenheiros, e em menos de um ano depois do terramoto, já não se encontravam ruínas em Lisboa e os trabalhos de reconstrução iam adiantados. O rei desejava uma cidade nova e ordenada a construção de grandes praças e avenidas largas e rectilíneas, que marcaram a planta da nova cidade. Na altura alguém perguntou ao Marquês de Pombal para que serviam ruas tão largas, ao que este respondeu que um dias elas serão pequenas... o que se reflecte hoje no trânsito caótico de Lisboa.

O novo centro da cidade, hoje conhecido por baixa pombalina é uma das atracções turísticas da cidade. São os primeiros edifícios mundiais a serem construídos com protecções anti-sismo, que foram testados em modelos de madeiras à medida que as tropas marchavam ao seu redor

A competência do ministro não se limitou à acção de reconstrução da cidade. O Marquês do Pombal ordenou um inquérito, enviado a todas as paróquias do país para apurar a ocorrência e efeitos do terramoto. O questionário incluía, entre outras questões:

Quanto tempo durou o terramoto?
Quantas réplicas se sentiram?
Que tipo de danos causou o terramoto?
Os animais tiveram comportamentos estranhos? (esta questão antecipou estudos sismológicos chineses, da década de 1960)
Que aconteceu nos poços?

As respostas estão ainda arquivadas na Torre do Tombo. Através das respostas do inquérito foi possível aos cientistas actuais recolherem dados fiáveis e reconstituírem o fenómeno de uma perspectiva científica. O inquérito do Marquês do Pombal foi a primeira iniciativa de descrição objectiva no campo da sismologia, razão pela qual o Marquês do Pombal é considerado um percursor da ciência da sismologia.

As causas geológicas do terramoto e da actividade sísmica na região de Lisboa são ainda causa de debate científico. Apesar de existirem indícios geológicos da ocorrência de grandes abalos sísmicos com a periodicidade de aproximadamente 300 anos, Lisboa encontra-se no centro de uma placa tectónica, não existindo assim justificação para um terramoto tão intenso. Alguns geólogos avançam que o terramoto estará relacionado com o desenvolvimento de uma zona de subducção no Oceano Atlântico, e com o início do fecho deste oceano.

. .


 

Letter from James O’Hara
Lisbon, November 12, 1755

"Dear sister,
I sit down to relate to you the dreadful catastrophe that has befallen the once-flourishing city of Lisbon, now a scene of horror and desolation.
On the first day of this month, at half past nine in the forenoon, a sudden earthquake shook its foundations, and laid it in ruins. At this fatal hour, the churches were crowded; and as their fall was momentary, and allowed no time for retreating, those who were in them were crushed to death.
It is impossible to describe the affrighted looks of the inhabitants, flying various ways to avoid destruction. Numbers flocked to the river’s side in hopes to save their lives by means of boats. The custom-house quay was imagined to be a place for safety; but unhappily it was soon inundated, and those who fled on it, only escaped from the falling city, to meet a watery grave. Fathers and mothers were seen seeking their children, and children searching for their parents."


The 1755 Lisbon earthquake took place on November 1, 1755, at 9:20 in the morning. It was one of the most destructive and deadly earthquakes in history, killing well over 100,000 people. The quake was followed by a tsunami and fire, resulting in the near total destruction of Lisbon. The earthquake accentuated political tensions in Portugal and profoundly disrupted the country's 18th century colonial ambitions. The event was widely discussed by European Enlightenment philosophers, and inspired major developments in theodicy and in the philosophy of the sublime. The first to be studied scientifically for its effects over a large area, the quake signaled the birth of modern seismology. Geologists today estimate the Lisbon earthquake approached magnitude 9 on the Richter scale.

The earthquake struck on the morning of November 1, the All Saints' Day Catholic holiday. Contemporary reports state that the earthquake lasted between three-and-a-half and six minutes, causing gigantic fissures five meters wide to rip apart the city center. The survivors rushed to the open space of the docks for safety and watched as the water receded, revealing a sea floor littered by lost cargo and old shipwrecks. Several tens of minutes after the earthquake, an enormous tsunami engulfed the harbor and downtown, rushing up the Tagus river. It was followed by two more waves. In the areas unaffected by the tsunami, fire quickly broke out, and flames raged for five days.

Lisbon was not the only Portuguese city affected by the catastrophe. Throughout the south of the country, in particular the Algarve, destruction was general. The shockwaves of the earthquake were felt throughout Europe as far as Finland and North Africa. Tsunamis up to 20 meters in height swept the coast of North Africa, and struck Martinique and Barbados across the Atlantic. A three-meter tsunami hit the southern English coast.

Of a Lisbon population of 275,000, up to 90,000 were killed. Another 10,000 were killed in Morocco. Eighty-five percent of Lisbon's buildings were destroyed, including famous palaces and libraries, as well as most examples of Portugal's distinctive 16th-century Manueline architecture. Several buildings that had suffered little damage due to the earthquake were destroyed by the fire.

It is said that many animals sensed danger and fled to higher ground before the water arrived. The Lisbon quake is the first documented reporting of such a phenomenon in Europe.

The Prime Minister Sebastião de Melo (the Marquis of Pombal) survived the earthquake and said: “Now? Bury the dead and feed the living”, and with the pragmatism that characterized his coming rule, he immediately began organizing the recovery and reconstruction. He sent firefighters into the city to extinguish the flames, and ordered teams to remove the thousands of corpses. Time was short to dispose of the corpses before disease spread. Contrary to custom and against the wishes of representatives of the Church, many corpses were loaded onto barges and buried at sea beyond the mouth of the Tagus. To prevent disorder in the ruined city, and, in particular, as a deterrent against looting, gallows were constructed at high points around the city and at least 34 were executed. The Portuguese Army was mobilized to surround the city to prevent the able-bodied from fleeing, so that they could be pressed into clearing the ruins. Not long after the initial crisis, the prime minister and the King quickly hired architects and engineers, and less than a year later, Lisbon was already free from debris and undergoing reconstruction. The King was keen to have a new, perfectly ordained city. Big squares and rectilinear, large avenues were the mottos of the new Lisbon. At the time, somebody asked the Marquis of Pombal the need of such wide streets. The Marquis answered: one day they will be small. Indeed, the chaotic traffic of Lisbon today reflects the wisdom of the reply.

Pombaline buildings are among the first seismically-protected constructions in the world. Small wooden models were built for testing, and earthquakes were simulated by marching troops around them. Lisbon's "new" downtown, known today as the Pombaline Downtown (Baixa Pombalina), is one of the city's famed attractions. Sections of other Portuguese cities, like the Vila Real de Santo António in Algarve, were also rebuilt along Pombaline principles.

The Prime Minister's response was not limited to the practicalities of reconstruction. The Marquis ordered a query sent to all parishes of the country regarding the earthquake and its effects. Questions included:

How long did the earthquake last?
How many aftershocks were felt?
What kind of damage was caused?
Did animals behave strangely? (this question anticipated studies by Chinese seismologists in the 1960s)
What happened in wells and water holes?

The answers to these and other questions are still archived in the Tower of Tombo, the national historical archive. Studying and cross-referencing the priests' accounts, modern scientists were able to reconstruct the event from a scientific perspective. Without the query designed by the Marquis of Pombal, this would have been impossible. Because the Marquis was the first to attempt an objective scientific description of the broad causes and consequences of an earthquake, he is regarded as a forerunner of modern seismological scientists.

The geological causes of this earthquake and the seismic activity in the region continue to be discussed and debated by contemporary scientists. Some geologists have suggested that the earthquake may indicate the early development of an Atlantic subduction zone, and the beginning of the closure of the Atlantic Ocean.

 


 

A cache:
ATENÇÃO: Esta cache, em memória do 250º aniversário do terramoto de 1755, em Lisboa, será activada apenas no dia comemorativo desse fatídico acontecimento, 1 de Novembro de 2005.
Nesta mesma ocasião, entre 1 e 4 de Novembro, decorrerá em Lisboa uma conferência internacional comemorativa deste acontecimento, intitulada "250th Anniversary of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake”.

A cache encontra-se escondida em frente ao Centro Cultural de Belém, onde será realizada a sessão de abertura da referida conferência, na zona ribeirinha que tanto foi afectada pelo terramoto e consequente maremoto. Por favor seja discreto na busca e volte a colocar o recipiente como o encontrou, para que fique bem preso e não seja encontrado por terceiros.

 

The cache:
NOTE: This cache, to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, will be activated only on the 1st of November 2005, 250 years after this catastrophic day.
At the same time, between 1 and 4 November, there will be in Lisbon an international conference commemorating this seismic event entitled “250th Anniversary of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake”.

The cache is hidden in front of the Centro Cultural de Belém, where the opening session and the first lectures of the conference will be carried through, in the marginal zone that was so affected by earthquake and consequent tsunami. Be very discrete in your search and please put the container back in the position as you found it, so that it is well attached and not easilly found by “muggles”.


Quer saber mais sobre o Geocaching em Portugal?
Adere ao grupo de discussão e visita os sites Geocaching@PT,
GeoPorStats
e os mapas com a localização das caches portuguesas

Would you like to know more about Geocaching in Portugal?
Join the discussion group and visit Geocaching@PT,
GeoPorStats and the maps with the location of the portuguese caches

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