Jaskyna Domica - Domica cave
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Close to the state boundary with Hungary there is the Domica Cave, forming a single genetic unit with the Hungarian Baradla Cave.
The Domica Cave is situated in region of the Slovenske rudohorie Mts., geomorphological whole Slovak Karst and subwhole Silicka Planina. Geographic coordinates of its entrance are 48o28'43'' n.g.latitude and 20o28'22'' e.g.longitude. The entrance of the Domica cave is counted in a land-register of the village Kecovo 10 km southern of the town Plesivec. Passages of the cave overcome the Slovak-Hungary state border and continue in the Hungary as the Baradla Cave.
The Domica Cave is a upper part of the known Domica-Baradla Cave System, situated on the southwestern border of the Slovak karst. The cave is created in in the light limestones of the Middle Triassic Age. The passages of the Domica Cave were shaped by erosion by waters of the underground stream Styx. The main corridors are spreading alongside fissures in a N-S direction, branchs and junctions are controlled by fissures in a W-E direction. The cave is mainly horizontal with small vertical parts closed the cave below surface dry ponors. More evolutional levels with the alternated erosional and accumulative phases was identified. The dripstone decoration is widely distributed and impressed. The sinter shields and drums, the cascade dripstone lakes, the onion-like and breast-like stalactites, the guano pots in the sinter crusts can be counted to unique types of the sinter decoration. In addition the cave is important from the angle of the archaeology and biospeleology. The Domica Cave is the richest cave finding place of the Bukk Culture (6400 - 6100 before Christ) and finds of the other cultures was found too. Rare species of the troglobionts were occurred in the cave. A part of the cave is shown for public in two tours.
History of exploration
The chasm-like caves Certova diera (the Devil's Pit), Licsia diera (Fox's Cave) and now called Stara Domica (the Old Domica Cave) were well known near to the today's Domica Cave for a long time. Bartholomeides (1806) wrote that it was spreading various legends about the Certova diera Cave. An interest in this phenomena increased when the question of the origin of the subterranean stream Styx in the Baradla Cave began to be studied. In order to find L. Bartholomeides, a parish priest from Ochtina, visited the Certova diera Cave on July 10,1801. He called it as the Budosto Cave and as the first he pronounced an assumption that the Certova diera, Licsia diera and Stara Domica were only an entrance to many larger passages, the second entrance to the Baradla Cave.
One of its greatest explorers and pioneers I.Vass came to the same conclusion at surveying the Baradla in 1821. E.Nyari (1881) who carried out with other specialists extensive archaeological works in the Baradla Cave on the foundation of the same surface and subterranean rivers at Smradlave jazierko (Stinking Lake) supposed that between both caves were larger underground passages. K. Siegmenth (1891) at the occasion of a visit to the Certova diera cave mentioned about huge heaps of bat's droppings in the cave. The connection between the Certova diera and the Baradla they only suspected.
Nobody of the explorers of the time tried to get over two water siphons separating the Baradla from the Domica Cave of today. An exploration of underground passages of the Certova diera which headed eastward was carried out. A discovery of the Domica Cave was not by a change, but a result of relentless and enterprising activity of Jan Majko. He and his companions got into the new passages through the Stara Domica Cave on October 3,1926 and later proved their connection with the Certova diera and the Licsia diera.
Spaces of the Domica Cave were open to the public in advance in 1930 and new entrance they broke open in 1932. A connection of the Domica Cave with the Baradla Cave is ensured by a siphon about 250 m long, which was from the Hungarian side for the first time vanquished by H.Kessler on August 28, 1932, and from Slovak side by V.Benicky on September 6,1932. It demonstrated that both Baradla and Domica Caves are parts of the one long system.
More archaeological, paleontological, biospeleological, hydrologic and other investigations took place in the cave in recent. Papers with some their results are listed on page Bibliography about the Domica Cave. A Short information about results of the archaeological investigation is presented on page Archaeology in the Domica Cave and some biospeleologic knowledge can be found on page Cave fauna in the Slovak karst.
The underground passages of the Domica Cave are counted among the most important and beautiful in the Slovak Karst. They rose in the light limestones of the Middle Triassic (Ladin) which form massif of the hills Domica 464 m a.s.l. and Poron 505 m a.s.l.. The cave is situated on the southwestern border of the Silicka planina Plateau 10 km southeast of the town Plesivec.
The passages of the Domica Cave were shaped by erosion of the underground stream. All the more extensive cave corridors are spreading alongside pronounced tectonic fissures. Fissures are in a north to south direction with inclination westward for the main part of the cave, and in a west to east direction with inclination to the North in minor degree. The main passage is drained by the underground stream Styx flowing across the whole system Baradla - Domica. Both the altitude situation of the cave corridors and the different composition of river deposits show that more periods of erosion and accumulation phases took place in the creation of underground caverns. Z.Roth (1937) identified 3 erosional and 4 accumulative stages on two altitude evolutional levels. Recent drilling works discovered another evolutional level lain lower. The lengthwise profile of cave corridors presents the evolutional levels with comparative declination 12-18 m. Each of them has periods alternated the erosion and the accumulation.
Sinter decoration is widely distributed. Unique forms are notable as dripstone shields and drums. The cascade-like dripstone lakes called Roman Baths are remarkable for their impression. Onion-like and breast-like shapes of stalactites in the Virgin Corridor are interesting for their proportions. The rare minerals are present in so-called guano pots. In addition the cave is important from the angle of archaeological and biospeleologic. More information about results of the archaeological investigation of the Domica Cave can be found on page Archaeology in the Domica Cave. Important species of troglobionts (Niphargas aggtelehiensis, Mesoniscus graniter Friv) were occurred in the cave. Please read the page Cave fauna in the Slovak karst for more information about an extension of the cave fauna.
The Domica Cave is a well known cave settlement from the Late Stone Age sometime used as the underground holy of holies probably. In accordance with the most recent research works the Domica Cave was a dwelling place for the people of the Bukk Culture with the interruptions about 300 years (6400 - 6100 before Christ). There is the richest cave finding place of the Bukk Culture as a matter of fact. It was demonstrated by numerous finds of stone tools (knives and scrapers of obsidian, stone wedges and crusher for grain, splinters of clay vessels (on picture), tools made of bones, combs, sintered vessels) and additional proofs of existence of prehistoric settlement.
Man probably got into this cave as early as in the Early Stone Age. A reason for it is given a finding of the only one stone leafy spike which ranks in the Szelet Culture (35 000 - 40 000 years) in the cave alluvium. Next prehistoric inhabitants of the Domica were users of the Starcevo-Kris and Seskel Cultures what both are characterized by a production of thin bowls without spirals and meanders. In about Middle of the Late Stone Age the peoples of East Slavonic Culture settled the cave. For them the linear ceramics with rich cut ornaments is characterized. Small fragments of the ceramics confirm, that the cave was at that time settled in only for a short time. The Domica offered only poor findings of skeleton relics of man: in 1926 a half of lower jaw was discovered and in 1936 was found a half of already sintered jaw and footprints and handprints in clay. Unexplained drawings of the lines decorate walls of the close passage. It can be interpreted as that some parts of the Domica Cave were used to ritual ceremonies of the primeval peoples.
The reasons for protection of the cave
The Domica Cave is an example of the development of a specific and unique karst geologic system with features of extraordinary nature beauty. The cave together with the protective zone includes all the components of ecosystem. It is the richest cave finding place of the Bukk Culture altogether. The Domica-Baradla Cave System is a case of the most characteristic and the largest natural system of subterranean passages of the plateau karst, which spreads on the territory of Slovakia and Hungary.
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2. What is Guano?
3. There was found the oldest thing to beautify your head. Which one was it?
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5. When was the last biggest flood there?
6. There was found a remains of one animal in dry drift-way, write which animal was it, write an Latin name too.
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Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum