Jasovská jaskyna - Jasovská Cave
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Jasovská Cave is located in the Medzev Upland in the western part of the Košice Basin.
The Jasovska Cave is situated in region of the Slovenske rudohorie Mts., geomorphological whole Slovak karst and subwhole Jasovska planina. The geographical coordinates of its entrance are 48o40'40'' N.g. latitude and 20o58'41'' E.g. altitude. The Jasovska Cave is counted in a land-register of the Jasov village in Kosice-country district.
The Jasovska Cave is a known cave system in the Jasovska skala Mt., situated in the northeastern part of the Slovak karst. The cave is created in mesozoic carbonate rocks of the Silica Nappe - limestones and dolomites of the Middle Triassic. It represents complicated system of the domes and passages what was evolved in five levels. A summary length of the surveyed spaces is 2308 m and an amplitude of the altitude is 42 m. A rich decoration of the flowstones, sinter streamfalls, curtains and other forms of the calcite dripstone are presented.
The cave is remarkable by archeological finds from the Paleolithic Age to the Middle Historic Age. It demonstrates a historical evolution of the relation between man and cave in a time range up ten thousands years from primary settlement over refugium and prehistoric factory to today's object of the science research, the tourist attraction and the speleotherapeutic spa. The Jasovska cave is countered to oldest show caves in world.
History of exploration
Entrances of the caves belonged to the system of The Jasovska Cave were known from time out of mind. The Jasovska cave is countered to oldest accessible caves in world. In 1846 a public access of the cave was made by Alojz Richter which was a superior of the premonster canons in that time. Trips in the cave was organized by the Kosice's Assembly of the Hungarian Physicians and Natural Historians Society. According today's titles, next passages were made accessible: Vstupna chodba (Entrance Passage), Kamenna chodba (Stone Passage), Jedalen (Dining Room), Stary dom (Old Dome), Maly kostol (Small Church), Dom netopierov (Bats Hall), Hlinena chodba (Clay Passage) and passages behind the Bats Hall (Srdcova komora - Heart Chamber). Difficult junctions were equipped by the wood steps as well as the bridges in passages needed in its. Parts from entrance to Dining Room were enlarged in that time.
The cave was made accessible by a modern way on July 20, 1924 and electrically illuminated in 1926. In the 1931 a new entrance was driven into cave and a new portal of entry was arranged. Very undesirable influence to the cave has got the time amount of the 1939-1949 years when the cave was owned by the premonsters' order, respectively during and closely after the Second World War, when an equipment of the show cave was neglected and expressive damaged.
In 1878 J. Nyari realized an archaeological research in the cave what is oldest known us. The first systematical research of the cave accomplished by geologist and paleontologist T. Kormos in the 1916. An extensive archaeological research in the cave headed prof. J. Eisner was realized in years 1924-25. In 1955 a correction archaeological research was accomplished by V. Lozek for more exact dating. L. Olexa headed a rescue archaeological investigation in 1978 for a modification of the entrance part. A short report about results can be found on page Archaeology in the Jasovska Cave. There was realized a paleontological investigation in the cave .
In 1923-24 the Jasovska Cave was explored speleologically by V. Bluma, which drawn a plan of the cave too and by J. Zikmund, which exactly surveyed the cave passages. J. Miticky and S. Furin realized next speleological exploring in cave in the 50th years. A. Droppa did a detail geomorphological research of the cave in 1962. Members of the today's Speleoclub CASSOVIA explored the cave in the 70th years (headed by M. Zacharov ). List of papers with the results of the Jasovska Cave investigation is on the page Bibliography about the Jasovska Cave.
The Jasovska Cave is a known cave system in geologic complex of the Jasovska skala Mt. (Jasov Rock, on picture) situated in the northeastern part of the Jasovska plateau. The cave is created in mesozoic carbonate rocks of the Silica Nappe - limestones and dolomites of the Middle Triassic Age.
It represents importantly complicated system with five evolution levels, connected with the ground surface by more entrances of the artificial and natural origin. The cave inside content from the widely domes, halls and passages with a summary length 2308 m and with an amplitude altitude 42 m. More significant chambers are created on the fissures of the E-W direction, for example Entry Junction, Old Dome and Tiger Passage, also Great Dome with the Smith Furnace Room, Mud Chamber, White Dome, Dining Room, Exit Passage and others. Most great chambers were created by falls on a crossing of the main direction fissures with faults of the NE-SW direction mainly and N-S direction too. For example, Bat's Hall and Labyrinth were created by this way.
Oldest channels created by a corrosion and an erosion of the vertically penetrated water was enlarged by waters of the Bodva river. The Jasovska skala Mt. represented a stream-attack riverside for Bodva. Proved old passages in an entrance part have got a tunnel cross-section with well developed top trench. Passages were choked up by mechanical river sediments, later removed by nature way or by unearth. In west region of the cave a river activity made less.
Walls of the passages and domes boast a rich decoration of the flowstones, sinter streamfalls, curtains and other forms of the dripstone. The massive stalagmite 8 m height and with perimeter of 28 m is remarkable in the Old Dome. The sinter drum in the Jewellery Room. The dripstone of the cave is noted for their massive impression.
Entrances of the caves belonged to the system of the Jasovska Cave were known from time out of mind. Results of the archeological research shown that the cave was settled in the Paleolithic (the Aurignacien Culture) and from Neolithic Era without interrupt. A short history of the archeology investigation can be found on the page History of the Jasovska Cave exploration.
The Jasovska Cave is known by finds of the paleolithical bone and silicate tools dated to the Middle Aurignacien, the fragments of the Neolithic Bukk Culture pottery, the jewelry and utilities from the Bronze Age. It is well-known by intensive Hallstatt settlement with a proved beginning of the iron production, finds of the Roman Period and numerous valuable finds from the Middle Ages as well as historical notices showed on a refugal function of the cave.
In the Middle Ages the cave gave a shelter for inhabitants of the near both village Jasov and famous monastery during the Tatar's as well as Turkey's invasions, in the time of the insurrections leaded by S. Bocskay and F. Rakoczi II. It is supported by many finds of the medieval pottery and by numerous notices on the walls. The oldest proved notice on the cave wall is witness about a victory of the Jan Jiskra from Brandys forces from 1452 (on the picture). Next notices are come from 1654 to 1657. It is remarkable that any written references about the cave were not found in an ample library of the premonsters monastery established in 12th century, which is considered up 30000 volumes.
The reasons for protection of the cave
The Jasovska Cave represents complicated cave system in the tectonic faulted complex of the limestones and dolomites. It was shaped in five levels by allochthonous river Bodva. The cave demonstrates a historical evolution of the relation between man and cave in a time range up ten thousands years. It gets function from a primary settlement over a refugal function and a prehistoric factory to today's object of the science research and the tourist attraction. Remarkable is the dripstone signed a massive impression. The cave is a significant winter shelter of the bats.
The impairs of the original status
The some damages in the cave passages were caused by frequent works to make a cave accessible in the past. We consider as most mark:
• a temporary unstability limestone blocks as a consequence of the blasting operations for an entrance tunnel driving
• some destructions of the dripstones caused by a drying of the clay substrate
• an expansion of the lampenflora in the show part of the cave.
Numerous negative footprints on the cave passages and their decoration were left till then the Jasovska Cave was proclaimed to the Nature Protected Phenomena (and its protection by law has been ensured). It's, for example, the passage arrangements during its accessible making or various excavation works connected with the exploring activities and with the chance visits in the cave.
The protection steps
The law protection of the cave is provided from the 1972 year, when the cave was proclaimed the Nature Protected Phenomena. In 1995 all caves in Slovakia have been proclaimed the national monuments by law. The Management of the Slovak karst Protected Landscape Area, The District Administration for the Environment of the Kosice-country district and The Management of the Slovak Show Caves are responsible for a protection of the cave. The research of the hydrological relations in the cave was realized in 1976. The research of the limestone massif stability was gone in 1979-1982, when one confirms no peril of the cave. In last years the microbiological measurements of the air in cave were realized.
The cave is closed by steel doors. A periodic monitoring of the state of the cave is going. A part of cave is shown for public and an access in the other parts is possible with a permit of the Management of the Slovak Shown Caves.
The protection of this specific karst geosystem is provided also due the Protection zone of the Nature Protected Phenomena as well in frame of then Protected Landscape Area Slovak karst, what is involved to the international network of the biosphere reservation.
1.Make a picture of your self with GPS in your hand in front of the information board where are information about protection of the bats.Voluntarily.
2.How many familyes of bats hibernate there?
3.How many steps are in the cave?
4.From which periods have been made many archeological discoveries?
5.In which elevation above sea level is an entrance?
6.How big is perimeter of stalagnates in the Old dome?
Podmienky zalogovania cache:
1.Prilozit k logu fotografiu s GPS pred vchodom (panelom na ochranu netopierov u) do jaskyne. (osameli vlci prilozia fotku GPS s citatelnymi suradnicami)
Poslat mi email s odpovedami na nasledujuce otazky:
2.Na slovensku žije 24 druhov netopierov.Tu prezimuje .?. druhov?
3.Kolko schodov je v jaskyni?
4.Vymenuj obdobia z ktorých pochádzajú archeologické nálezy .
5.V akej nadmorskej výške je vchod do jaskyne?
6.V Starom dóme sú stalagnáty s obvodom až XY m.
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Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum