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IYC2011 - Helium
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This is a cache in the IYC2011-series that is preparing for the International Year of Chemistry in 2011. They will hopefully increase chemistry knowledge as well as provide for good cache experiences.
Each cache in the IYC2011-series contains a clue (on the log sheet) to find the final IYC2011-cache to be released on 1/1/2011.
Helium is the chemical element with atomic number 2, and is represented by the symbol He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling and melting points are the lowest among the elements and it exists only as a gas except in extreme conditions. Next to hydrogen, it is the second most abundant element in universe, and accounts for 24% of the mass of our galaxy.
Helium is the second lightest element and is the second most abundant in the observable universe, being present in the universe in masses more than 12 times those of all the other elements heavier than helium combined. Helium's abundance is also similar to this in our own Sun and Jupiter. This high abundance is due to the very high binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium (lithium, beryllium, and boron). This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for its commonality as a product in both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Most helium in the universe is helium-4, and was formed during the Big Bang. Some new helium is being created presently as a result of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen, in all but the very heaviest stars, which fuse helium into heavier elements at the extreme ends of their lives.
On Earth, the lightness of helium has caused its evaporation from the gas and dust cloud from which the planet condensed, and it is thus relatively rare. What helium is present today has been mostly created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium), as the alpha particles that are emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei. This radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations up to seven percent by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation.
Read more about Helium here or here.
Last Updated: on 11/15/2017 3:27:01 PM (UTC-08:00) Pacific Time (US & Canada) (11:27 PM GMT)
Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum