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Petroleum spring

A cache by pyxis.praha Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 01/16/2010
Difficulty:
1 out of 5
Terrain:
3.5 out of 5

Size: Size:   other (other)

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On the starting point there is unique spontaneous spring of crude oil accompanied with methane gas, which is active up to this day.

 

Spring of crude oil - Korna

 

Petroleum

(L. petroleum, from Greek, lit. "rock oil") or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid found in rock formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. The term "petroleum" was first used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer, also known as Georgius Agricola.

Composition

In its strictest sense, petroleum includes only crude oil, but in common usage it includes both crude oil and natural gas. Both crude oil and natural gas are predominantly a mixture of hydrocarbons. Under surface pressure and temperature conditions, the lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethane, propane and butane occur as gases, while the heavier ones from pentane and up are in the form of liquids or solids. However, in the underground oil reservoir the proportion which is gas or liquid varies depending on the subsurface conditions, and on the phase diagram of the petroleum mixture.

An oil well produces predominantly crude oil, with some natural gas dissolved in it. Because the pressure is lower at the surface than underground, some of the gas will come out of solution and be recovered as associated gas or solution gas. A gas well produces predominately natural gas. However, because the underground temperature and pressure are higher than at the surface, the gas may contain heavier hydrocarbons such as pentane, hexane, and heptane in the gaseous state. Under surface conditions these will condense out of the gas and form natural gas condensate, often shortened to condensate. Condensate resembles gasoline in appearance and is similar in composition to some volatile light crude oils.

The proportion of hydrocarbons in the petroleum mixture is highly variable between different oil fields and ranges from as much as 97% by weight in the lighter oils to as little as 50% in the heavier oils and bitumens.

The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. The exact molecular composition varies widely from formation to formation but the proportion of chemical elements vary over fairly narrow limits as follows:

Composition by weight
Element - Percent range

Carbon - 83 to 87%
Hydrogen -10 to 14%
Nitrogen - 0.1 to 2%
Oxygen - 0.1 to 1.5%
Sulfur - 0.5 to 6%
Metals - less than 1000 ppm

Four different types of hydrocarbon molecules appear in crude oil. The relative percentage of each varies from oil to oil, determining the properties of each oil.

Composition by weight
Hydrocarbon - Average - Range 

Paraffins - 30% - 15 to 60%
Naphthenes - 49% - 30 to 60%
Aromatics - 15% - 3 to 30%
Asphaltics - 6% - remainder

Learn more in the source article Petroleum, on en.wikipedia.com

Your log may be accepted only when you visit the locality and fuilfill following tasks:

1. In the enclosure to your log, please add the picture showing you at the olil spring with the GPS in your hand.

2. Please, send me your answers to the questions via the profile.

- What is the elevation of the spring above sea-level?

- How many other oil springs may be found in the vicinity?



Na vychozich souradnicich se nachazi ojedinely, doposud aktivni vyver ropy doprovazeny methanem, ktery je poslednim dochovanym vyverem v teto oblasti.

 

Spring of crude oil - Korna

 

Ropa

(tez (surova) nafta, zemni olej, cerne zlato) je hneda az nazelenala horlava kapalina tvorena smesi uhlovodiku, predevsim alkanu. Pravdepodobne vznikla rozkladem zbytku pravekych rostlin a zivocichu. Nachazi se ve svrchnich vrstvach zemske kury – nejcasteji v oblasti kontinentalnich selfu. Je zakladni surovinou petrochemickeho prumyslu. Naleziste ropy jsou pod nepropustnymi vrstvami, v hloubkach az 8 km pod zemskym povrchem. Ropa pri tezbe bud vyvera pod tlakem, nebo je cerpana. Vyskytuje se spolecne se zemnim plynem.

Nazev ropa pochazi z polstiny, v prekladu znamena „hnis“, jde o puvodni stare oznaceni tamnich solnych pramenu.

Zakladni fyzikalne-chemicke vlastnosti

Hustota ropy se podle druhu pohybuje v rozmezi 0,730 az 1 g/cm3. Pro mereni objemu ropy se pouziva miry 1 barel = 42 americkych galonu = 35 britskych galonu = 158,97 litru. Mnozstvi ropy se take nekdy udava v tunach, jedne tune odpovida priblizne 7,33 barelu.

Pribliznou predstavu o slozeni ropy davaji nasledujici hmotnostni podily:

Uhlik - 84–87 %
Vodik - 11–14 %
Kyslik - az 1 %
Sira - az 4 %
Dusik - az 1 %

Vznik ropy

Vznik ropy vysvetluji dve navzajem si odporujici teorie – anorganicka a organicka.

Anorganicky puvod ropy
Anorganicky puvod ropy predpovidal Mendelejev. Podle nej vznikla pusobenim prehrate pary na karbidy tezkych kovu ktere se pouzivaji v petrochemii, v dobach, kdy se vyskytovaly blizko zemskeho povrchu. Ve prospech teto teorie svedci jednak laboratorni priprava pevnych, kapalnych i plynnych uhlovodiku z karbidu uranu, lanthanu i ceru a take neustaly unik metanu ze zemskeho nitra v nekterych oblastech.

Organicky puvod ropy
Organicka teorie je uznavana vetsinou vedcu, predpoklada, ze ropa vznikla z prehistorickych zivocisnych a rostlinnych zbytku, podrobenych rozkladu. Ty se vlivem tepla a tlaku premenily nejprve na kerogen, pak na zivice a nakonec na ropu a zemni plyn. Ty pote migrovaly podel nerostnych vrstev, az byly zachyceny v poreznich horninach, cimz vznikla jejich soucasna naleziste. Ve prospech teto teorie svedci zjisteni, ze mladsi ropa se velkou relativni molarni hmotnosti, zvysenym obsahem kysliku, siry a dusiku a velkym obsahem asfaltu priblizuje puvodnimu organickemu materialu. Cim je ropa starsi, tim je lehci, obsahuje mene asfaltu a vic uhlovodiku.

Vice se dozvite ve zdrojovem clanku Ropa, na cs.wikipedia.org

K uznani logu musite navstivit tuto lokalitu a splnit nasledujici ukoly:

1. k logu pridejte fotografii Vas a pristroje GPS u ropneho pramene

2. odpovedet na otazky, jejichz odpovedi mi zaslete pres profil:

- Jaka je nadmorska vyska pramene?

- Kolik ropnych pramenu se nachazi v blizkem okoli?


Na teto kesce spolupracoval take HeJHeK, mochour, pyxis.praha a TeamanMK, prejeme prijemny odlov a presny odhad.




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