Penn Grade Crude Oil
In Pennsylvania, United States
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Each cacher must send his/her own answers BEFORE logging a find. Enjoy the journey (learning adventure) as well as the destination (smiley earned). Remember to take only pictures and leave only footprints. To get credit for this Earthcache, complete the following tasks:
1. MESSAGE :-) or EMAIL …. Is the well pumping during your visit? If the well is pumping during your visit, note the polish rod. It is shiny. This indicates a working oil well. If the oil well was not working, the polish rod would be dull and tarnished.
2. MESSAGE :-) or EMAIL …. This well produces oil from a _ _ foot body of Bradford _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
3. MESSAGE :-) or EMAIL …. Is this well getting oil above or below sea level? Explain. (NOTE: Use the information on the sign and your GPS to answer this question.)
4. MESSAGE :-) or EMAIL …. Drilling for oil usually involved constructing a derrick and then shooting the well. This method has generally been replaced by fracking a well and rotary drilling. Explain the major differences between these two methods.
5. MESSAGE :-) or EMAIL …. Why is Penn Grade Crude Oil considered a top quality oil?
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A. Post a picture at or near the posted coords. This picture is your log signature verifying that you were at the earthcache.
B. JOURNEY OF THE MIND ... Science explains what we observe. Relate (in your own words) something you found interesting in the reading. This adds to your learning adventure and your log.
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BONUS - At this location, there is a micro cache (GC5X8PZ). Enjoy!
OPTIONAL - HALL OF FAME
1. What is the difference between an aticline and a syncline?
2. Visit one anticline and one syncline. What differences can you see that would tell you if it is an anticline or if it is a syncline?
Pennsylvania Grade Crude Oil is a type of sweet crude oil. It is found primarily in the Appalachian basin in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia, and takes its name for the state of Pennsylvania, where it was first extracted. Pennsylvania grade crude oil can be broken down into gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, gas oil, wax distillate, cylinder stock (or bottoms) and other refined products such as white oil and paraffin.
Pennsylvania grade crude oil is thermally stable and has a high viscosity index. It is generally free of asphalt and has only trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. It is also high in paraffin and other waxes making it highly desirable for refinement into petroleum lubricants such as motor oil. Its products are also valuable for use in certain hydraulic applications. By-products are commonly found in consumer goods such as cosmetics, and topical ointments.
Products refined from this type of oil are particularly prized as lubricants and many oil companies prominently display the fact that they use Pennsylvania Grade crude oil in their products.
Bradford, Pennsylvania is the major center for the refining of Pennsylvania grade crude oil. The posted coordinates will take you to McDonald's Parking Lot, the site of a working oil well - CLINE OIL NO. 1.
HISTORY OF CLINE OIL NO. 1
Information provided by Joyce Cline. THANK YOU.
Cline Oil No.1 was drilled in the late 1870’s by Thomas Bradley. All early records of the well’s drilling and completion have been lost or destroyed. However, more than likely it was drilled with a standard rig that was built on the spot and was prepared for production by “shooting” the well with nitroglycerine.
Records do show the oil rights being passed from Bradley to W.E. Detlor and Charles Spreter in 1889, to J.A. Fitzgibbon (date unknown), to A.W. Klingler in 1936, to Milo G Cline in 1938, and, in 1946, to the current owner, Willard M Cline, who has actually pumped and maintained the well since 1937.
The well would have originally been operated by the rig that drilled it, powered by a steam engine. The rig was replaced with a gas engine and gear power, run by natural gas from the well. An electric motor replaced the gas engine, and both were eventually upgraded to an electric pumping jack unit, which powers the well today.
In 1946 the well was “land-locked” by the General Garage and showroom, Still’s Funeral Home and garage, the Boylston Street Garage, and the Holley Hotel. Access to the well for servicing and maintenance was through an alley off of Main Street, between the General Garage showroom and a cigar shop.
The “General Garage Well”, as it was referred to for many years, can be seen in all early drawings and maps of downtown Bradford. It was the only oil well known to have been drilled on the block bounded by Main, Davis, Boylston, and Kennedy Streets.
By the early 1970’s, the adjoining buildings had all succumbed to “urban renewal” and the land became a city parking lot. During this period, the Clines blocked several attempts by the city to condemn the well and force it to be plugged. McDonald’s then expressed interest in incorporating the well into its plan to build on the site. It thus became the first and only McDonald’s Restaurant known to have a working oil well within its drive-thru.
Today, after producing for over one hundred and thirty years, the well can still yield a barrel (42 gallons) of Pennsylvania Grade Crude Oil per day from the Bradford 3rd sand. At one point in its history, it also supplied natural gas to heat the Still Funeral Home garage. Cline Oil No.1—the “McDonald’s Well”—is one of the most popular tourist attractions in downtown Bradford and probably the most visited and photographed well north of Titusville’s historic Drake Well.
OPTIONAL - HALL OF FAME
McKean is the principal oil-producing county of Pennsylvania with most of its production coming from the world famous Bradford Field in the north central part of the county. Natural gas is the principal product in the southern part of the county.
McKean County is part of a dissected plateau consisting of rolling hills ranging from 2,000 to 2,400 feet above sea level, and valleys ranging 500 to 700 feet below the upland level. The folds are gentle and asymetrical. The structure in this county is believed to be part of a domed area extending from Potter County to Cameron County. All of the rocks are sedimentary (shale / sandstone / conglomerate / limestone / coal), with an aggregate thickness of about 1,300 feet. The youngest rocks belong to the Allegheny formation of Pennsylvanian age. The oldest rocks belong to the Chemung formation of Devonian age.
ANTICLINES IN McKEAN COUNTY
An ANTICLINE is a type of fold that has an arch-like shape with its oldest layers at its core.
Anticlines in McKean County from southeast to northwest are as follows:
Harrison anticline ... Hebron anticline ... Smethport anticline ... Simpson anticline ... Bradford anticline
SYNCLINES IN McKEAN COUNTY
A SYNCLINE is a type of fold that has an arch-like shape with its youngest layers at its core.
Synclines in McKean County from southeast to northwest are as follows:
Norwich syncline (3rd Bituminous basin) ... Clermont syncline (4th Bituminous basin) ... Ormsby syncline ... Big Shanty syncline
Topographic and Geologic Survey - George H. Ashley, State Geologist - Bulletin 111 - May 1934
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Last Updated: on 8/27/2017 6:57:22 PM Pacific Daylight Time (1:57 AM GMT)
Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum