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Slap Peričnik / Peričnik Waterfall

A cache by Vane Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 11/16/2011
Difficulty:
1.5 out of 5
Terrain:
3 out of 5

Size: Size: not chosen (not chosen)

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Geocache Description:


(SI) Najlepši primer enostavno dostopne obvisele doline pri nas, kjer potok višinsko razliko premaguje v čudovitem dvojnem slapu.

PRED ZAČETKOM:
Opis tega Geološkega zaklada je dolg. Prosimo, preberite ga in si zapisite naloge za vpis se pred obiskom zaklada!

NALOGE ZA VPIS OBISKA
1. Pod spodnjim slapom se ozrite navzgor. Danes slap od ustja najprej drsi po strmem žlebu, ki ga je voda izdolbla v kamnino. Koliko izdolbljenih žlebov, vključno z danes aktivnim, jasno vidite vrh stene?
2. Konglomerat ni zelo odporen na vodno erozijo. Poleg tega so plasti preko, katerih pada Zgornji Peričnik, še precej manj odporne od plasti preko katerih pada Spodnji Peričnik. Ocenite koliko VEČ centimetrov ali metrov konglomeratne stene, je vsakih 100 let v povprečju odbrusil in zrurušil Zgornji Peričnik. Potrebujete podatek o starosti slapu (nastal je konec zadnje ledene dobe) in sedanjo razdaljo med zgornjim in spodnjim slapom (navedena je v opisu Geološkega zaklada).
3. Zelo bomo veseli, če kakšno zanimivo fotografijo z mesta zaklada priložite svojemu vpisu (logu) obiska.

POMEMBNO!
- Preden vpišete obisk zaklada, pošljite odgovore preko GC profila ali neposredno na e-naslov vane.si.geo@gmail.com. Takoj potem lahko vpišete obisk zaklada na spletu – ne potrebujete dodatnega dovoljenja.
- Vpisi brez ustrezne spremljajoče e-pošte, ki vsebuje pravilne odgovore, bodo najprej trajno kodirani, kasneje izbrisani!
- Vpisi, ki vsebujejo odgovor bodo izbrisani!


(ENG) The best example of easy accessible hanging valley waterfall in Slovenia, where stream plunges into the main valley in a wonderful two-step waterfall.

BEFORE THE BEGINNING:
This EarthCache has a long description! Please, read it and write down logging tasks before visiting the EarthCache site!

LOGGING TASKS
1. Take a look up, to the mouth of Lower Pericnik. You can see steep channel carved into the stone, where water slides few meters, before reaching an overhanging section of the cliff. How many carved channels can you see, including the one used by water today?
2. Conglomerate is easily eroded by water. Besides, layers at Upper Pericnik are much more prone to water erosion than layers at Lower Pericnik. How many centimeters or meters MORE of the stone cliff has been eroded by Upper Pericnik in the upstream direction comparing to Lower Pericnik - on average every 100 years? You need to know, approximately, how old the waterfall is (it has been formed at the end of last glacial period), and the horizontal distance between Upper and Lower Pericnik (written in the text above).
3. We would be glad if you added interesting photos from the EarthCache location to your log.

IMPORTANT!
- Send answers through GC profile or directly to e-mail vane.si.geo@gmail.com
before logging. After that you can log - you don't need an additional permission to log. Please, upload photos if you have taken them.
- Logs without an accompanying e-mail containing correct answers will be encrypted and later deleted!
- Logs containing the answer will be deleted!


slovensko besedilo / Slovenian text
tocke poti in dnevniki / waypoints and logs

Visit our web-site Geološki zakladi / EarthCaches
for a complete list of our EarthCaches and a lot of additional information.

(ENG) PERIČNIK...
... is situated in Vrata valley, in the Northern part of Julian Alps, approximately 5 km from village Mojstrana. Pericnik brook springs on rocky hillside above mountain pasture Visek. It flows from quite steep hillside to meadows of mountain pasture, continues down through steep valley to the edge of conglomerate cliff, rushes down in two-step waterfall and has a confluence with Triglavska Bistrica just after about 300m. Triglavska Bistrica is the main stream of Vrata valley, which springs under the magnificent Triglav northern wall, some 5km to the south-west.

Pericnik waterfall is not one, but two waterfalls actually. Upper Pericnik is 16m high, and Lower Pericnik 52m. When water reaches picturesque overhanging stone steps, it is sliding down channel carved in the stone, and than falling free from the cliff.

oak
Figure 1: 1a - Waterfall in the Summer; there are large rock shelters behind plunging water; photo: vane_si; 1b - Waterfall from the same spot, after the prolonged time of extremely cold weather in the winter, February 11th, 2012; photo kindly contributet by a cacher River.Song; CLICK PHOTO TO ENLARGE.

Waterfall is magnificent in the warmer part of the year, when water plunges down in thick jet and abundantly sprays surroundings and visitors with millions of water-drops. Since Upper Pericnik is a true miniature of the Lower Pericnik, this is a description of both.

In the cold of winter, waterfall freezes. Thousands of tiny water jets and places where water constantly drops, which are not so obvious in the warmer period, are revealed by so many icicles that they form a proper, breathtaking ice-organ. Only properly equipped mountaineers can safely approach immediate surroundings of Lower Pericnik and access Upper Pericnik while they are frozen.

HANGING VALLEY FORMATION AND WATERFALL DEVELOPMENT
Vrata valley floor has been filled with alluvium – sand, gravel and stones – during Riss glacial period (200.000 to 130.000 years ago). The loose material has been compacted and cemented into a thick layer of conglomerate in the last interglacial. Glacier has deepened and widened Vrata valley and so carved deep into the layer of conglomerate during last, Wurm glacial. This way the side valley of Pericnik has been left hanging high above the floor of Vrata valley. Flow of Pericnik brook has been cut and a large waterfall, about 70m high has been formed. So, Pericnik waterfall has been formed in the recent geological history and is one of the youngest Slovenian waterfalls.

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Figure 2: A receding waterfall: water erodes less resistant layers at the base first, upper layers collapse afterwards.

Because of the difference in the stone layers abrasiveness, waterfall has been later separated in two. Layers at the Upper Pericnik are much more prone to water erosion than layers at Lower Pericnik. Therefore upper waterfall recedes in the upstream direction much faster than lower and is about 40m further upstream today. And the distance between waterfalls is going to grow in the future.

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Figure 3: Pericnik waterfall longitudinal section. Pericnik is a receding waterfall.

Pericnik has often changed stream channel in the postglacial age. Last channel active before today's course can be seen about 5m to the left from head of lower waterfall. Water has been using this channel until severe storm in the year 1885, when direction has been changed. Locals have been trying to direct all the water into the new channel and therefore dammed the remaining of the old channel above the waterfall in 1935. Even so, some water still flows into the old channel in the time of high waters. There is also a second old channel visible about 50m to the right with some water only after heavy rain. Waterfall has been changing position all the time, one of the last changes has been caused by large rock rockfall at North-Eastern side of the Upper Pericnik.

Triglavska Bistrica flaws along the Vrata valley with two different stone formations at each side. Right slope is from Triassic dolomite and left slope from Pleistocene conglomerate.

EARTHCACHE AND ACCESS
Start from parking area (waypoint PARKNG), take marked trail uphill, which leads you to the foot of Lower Pericnik in ten minutes. Continue ascend using the path at the southern side, through woods and up steep stairs to the foot of Upper Pericnik. EarthCache is set there too.

Note: You use trails at your own risk. Use only trails you are fit to. Be safe and enjoy!

REFERENCES
1. Anton Ramovs, Slapovi v Sloveniji, Slovenska matica, Ljubljana, 1983;
2. Peter Skoberne, Sto naravnih znamenitosti Slovenije, Presernova druzba, Ljubljana, 1988;
3. Rok Kuslan, Slapovi, Sidarta, Ljubljana, 2008;
4. Tajan Trobec, DEDI, Oddelek za geografijo, Filozofska fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani;


Slovensko besedilo

Obiscite naso spletno stran Geološki zakladi / EarthCaches
za seznam vseh nasih Geoloških zakladov in mnogo dodatnih podatkov.

(SI) PERICNIK...
...lezi v dolini Vrata, v severnem delu Julijskih Alp, priblizno 5 km zracne razdalje od Mojstrane. Potok Pericnik izvira na skalnem pobocju nad planino Visek. S precej strmega pobocja preide na senozeti planine, nadaljuje tok navzdol po strmi grapi do roba konglomeratne stene, prek katere v dveh korakih pada slap. Pod slapom se ze po slabih 300m izliva v Triglavsko Bistrico, ki od Triglavske severne stene tece po dnu doline Vrata.

Slap Pericnik pravzaprav ni en sam, temvec je sestavljen iz dveh slapov. Visina Zgornjega Pericnika je 16m, visina Spodnjega Pericnika pa 52m. Pri obeh voda prosto pada prek slikovitih, strmih konglomeratnih stopenj.

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slika 1: 1a - Slap poleti; za slapom so veliki spodmoli; foto: vane_si; 1b - Slap slikan z istega mesta, po daljsem, hudem zimskem mrazu, 11. februar 2012; Zimski posnetek prijazno odstopila zakladolovka River.Song; KLILNI SLIKO ZA POVECAVO.

Pericnik je enkraten v toplejsem delu leta. Voda nekaj casa drsi po strmem, izlizanem koritu, nato pa prosto pada v tolmun. ter prsi po okolici in obiskovalcih. To velja za oba slapova, saj je zgornji prava pomanjsava spodnjega.

Ob hujsem zimskem mrazu slap zmrzne, stevilne ledene svece pa izdajajo nestete vodne curke in kapljajoca mesta, ki so bila cez leto skrita nepozornim ocem. Pericnik se tako spremeni v velicastne ledene orgle. Pri zimskem obisku se brez derez ni varno podajati v neposredno blizino slapu. Zgornji slap pa je pozimi vcasih dostopen le izurjenim, ustrezno opremljenim plezalcem.

NASTANEK VISECE DOLINE IN RAZVOJ SLAPU
Dno doline Vrata so v predzadnji poledenitvi zapolnili prodni nanosi, iz katerih je, v zadnji medledeni dobi, v pleistocenu, nastala debela skladovnica konglomerata. Med zadnjo, Wurmsko poledenitvijo, je ledenik dodatno poglobil in razsiril dolino Vrata, v katero je pritekal potok Pericnik. Po umiku ledenika je dolina Pericnika obvisela nad dolino Vrata, presekana z visoko konglomeratno steno, preko katere je pricel padati mogocen, okrog 70 metrov visok slap. Slap Pericnik tako spada med najmlajse slovenske slapove.

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slika 2: Umikajoci se slap: voda najprej oddrobi spodnje, manj odporne plasti, potem se zrusijo zgornji skladi.

Slap se je sele kasneje razdelil na dva dela, in sicer zaradi razlicno odpornih plasti konglomeratne kamnine. Plasti pri Zgornjem Pericniku so manj odporne, zato jih je voda brusila hitreje kot plasti pri Spodnjem Pericniku. Na ta nacin je iz enega ustvarila dva slapa, zgornji je ze 40 metrov odmaknjen od spodnjega, razdalja pa se bo v prihodnjih tisocletjih se povecevala.

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slika 3: Skica prereza Pericnika. Pericnik je tako imenovani umikajoci se slap.

V postglacialni dobi je Pericnik pogosto menjaval strugo. Zadnja struga, ki ni vec aktivna, je opazna v zlebu kakih 5 m levo od spodnjega slapa, kjer je voda tekla vse do mocnega naliva leta 1885, ko se je glavni vodni curek prestavil, nakar se je slap ustalil na zdajsnjem mestu. Kljub temu, da so staro strugo leta 1935 zagradili in zabetonirali, ob visokem vodostaju del vode se vedno odteka po stari strugi. Poleg struge izpred leta 1885 je kakih 50 m desno se en nekdanji zleb, po katerem voda curlja samo se ob najvecjem dezevju. Eno zadnjih sprememb toka spodnjega slapa je nedvomno povzrocil skalni podor na severovzhodni strani zgornjega slapa.

Triglavska Bistrica danes po dolini tece med dvema kamninsko razlicnima pobocjema. Desni breg je zgrajen iz triasnega dolomita, levi pa iz pleistocenskega konglomerata.

GEOLOŠKI ZAKLAD IN DOSTOP
S parkirisca se po oznaceni poti v desetih minutah vzpnemo k vznozju spodnjega slapu. Po juzni strani se nadaljujemo pot navzgo in se preko strmih stopnic vzpnemo do vznozj zgornjega slapu. Tja so postavljene tudi koodrinate Geološkega zaklada.

Opomba: Poti uporabljate na lastno odgovornost! Hodite le po poteh za katere ste ustrezno pripravljeni! Zelimo vam varno pot in veliko uzitkov!

VIRI:
1. Anton Ramovs, Slapovi v Sloveniji, Slovenska matica, Ljubljana, 1983;
2. Peter Skoberne, Sto naravnih znamenitosti Slovenije, Presernova druzba, Ljubljana, 1988;
3. Rok Kuslan, Slapovi, Sidarta, Ljubljana, 2008;
4. Tajan Trobec, DEDI, Oddelek za geografijo, Filozofska fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani;


tocke poti in dnevniki / waypoints and logs

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