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Gorazde / Location Gubavica

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Hidden : 08/11/2011
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Geocache Description:

Gorazde, the heroic city on the Drina River.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/7/79/Grb_Gorazde.jpg/100px-Grb_Gorazde.jpg (visit link) (visit link)
Goražde (Serbian Cyrillic: ???????, pronounced [g??ra?d?]), is
a city and municipality in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina on the
Drina river. It is located between Foca, Sokolac and
Višegrad, and is administratively part of the Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina and the center of the Bosnian Podrinje
Canton. Location Goražde is situated on the banks of the River
Drina in South East Bosnia (see maps). The city lies at the foot of
the eastern slope of mountain Jahorina at a height of 345m above
sea level. The settlement is situated on the alluvial terrace in a
broad valley, formed by the erosion of the River Drina. The valley
is bordered on the South-East by Biserna (701 m), on the South by
Samari (696 m), on the South-West by Misjak (618 m), on the West by
Gubavica (410 m) and on the North by Povrsnica (420 m). The River
Drina flows between these and some other hills. Its valley, which,
since ancient times it has been part of the route going from the
sea to the mainland (Dubrovnik - Trebinje - Gacko - Foca - the
Drina valley), is the principal traffic artery in the south-eastern
region of Bosnia. At Goražde this road meets another coming
from Sarajevo and central Bosnia via the Jabuka Mountain pass down
to the Drina valley and preceding on to Plevlje. In 2005, 91% of
population of the municipality were ethnic Bosniaks. The city of
Goražde itself had 18,752* (total agglomeration 27,386)
residents in 1991: 11,743 Bosniaks 5,888 Serbs 65 Croats 672
Yugoslavs 384 others.[citation needed] Environment Natural
environment The surrounding region of Goražde is composed of
Paleozoic slate, sandstone, carbon and perm. The hills are for the
most part rounded and with gentle slopes. The higher ones are
composed of limestone. Goražde with its surroundings has
mainly equable and fresh mountainous climate. The average annual
temperature of the air is 10.8 C and the rainfall is fairly evenly
distributed throughout the year. The town is supplied with water
from six springs. One part of the inhabitants gets drinking water
from ordinary wells. The construction of a water supply system
began in 1962. from the spring in Cajnice, 16.5 km (10.3 mi) from
Goražde. The River Drina has great significance for the
founding and the development of Goražde. The greatest floods
recorded since the 18th century occurred in 1677, 1731, 1737 and in
1896. [edit] Built environment The main characteristic of the
layout and the type of town is its elongated shape along the
Ustipraca-Foca road. From 1465 till 1878 Goražde was part of
the Turkish Empire. In the 18th and 19th centuries Goražde was
inhabited by Muslim and Orthodox communities. Up to World War II
there existed two separate parts: Muslim and Orthodox. Today this
division is disappearing. After World War II the town began to
expand and be modernized, New streets have been built, public and
residential buildings have been built in the centre and in the
outskirts as well. From 1945 to 1961, 1130 council flats and 680
private homes have been built. In 1961 there were 616 buildings
altogether in the town. History Medieval period The Drina river at
Goražde. With Gornje Podrinje, Goražde was part of the
old Serbian State up to 1376, when it was attached to the Bosnian
State under the reign of King Tvrtko. After Tvrtko's death the town
was ruled by the Hum Dukes among whom the best known was Herzog
Stjepan. In 1379, Goražde was first mentioned as a trading
settlement and in 1444 as a fortress. The origin of the town's name
seems to have come from the Slavonic word "gorazd" The Goražde
market became well known in 1415 when merchants from Dubrovnik had
intensive commercial relations with it. Ottoman rule The Turks took
Goražde over definitively in 1465 and the place assumed
oriental features. In 1477 there were four mahals in town. From
1550-1557 Mustafa Sokolovic built a stone bridge across the Drina
and a caravanserai. During the Turkish rule Goražde was a
significant trading centre, being at the crossroads of the two
important roads: the Bosnian and the Dubrovnik. The gross state
income from land amounted in 1477 to 24,256 akchi. In 1711
Goražde was mentioned as the Turkish zoimat of 26,000 akchi.
Two mosques built by the Sijercic begs date back to the 18th
century. Near Goražde there is an Orthodox church, built in
1446 by Herzog Stjepan. A printing press, attached to the church,
worked there from 1521 till 1531. This was the first printing press
to be established in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the second in the
Balkans. Printing began with materials used in Sopotnica church.
The decline of Goražde in the 18th century and the first half
of the 19th century is attributed, among other things, to the
plague. Up to the middle of the 19th century Goražde was part
of the Herzegovinian Sandjak, when it became part of the Sarajevo
Sandjak. The period of the Austro-Hungarian occupation was marked
by the decline of Goražde, although there was at the same time
a certain ascent. Due to its geographical position on the border
Goražde was during World War I one of the main strongholds of
Austria-Hungary used against Serbia and Montenegro. Yugoslavia In
pre-war Yugoslavia Goražde, being no more a frontier town, had
normal conditions under which to develop and prosper. In 1941
German troops entered the town after an air-raid on April 17. Later
on Italian troops were also stationed there. The National
Liberation Army took over the town for the first time on January
27, 1942, and remained there until May of the same year. During
this period National Liberation Committees were formed for the town
the district of Goražde on the basis of the Foca Stipulations.
At the same time Goražde was the headquarters of the National
Liberation Army for East Bosnia. Early in March, 1942 the
Commander-in-Chief, Marshal Tito stayed in Goražde.
Goražde was liberated twice more, in 1943 and 1944, and on
March 6, 1945 it was finally liberated from the occupation. Chetnik
massacres against ethnic Croats and Bosniaks in December
1941/January 1942 caused the death of approximately 2,050
civilians. The composition of the Goražde population can be
traced from the times of Austro-Hungarian occupation. The Orthodox
inhabitants originate from Stari Vlah in Sandzak, Brda in
Montenegro, Herzegovina and South Serbia The few ancestral
inhabitants exempted, the Muslim. population began to come in great
numbers to Goražde and its surroundings in the 17th century.
From the end of the war till 1961 a considerable number of new
groups of families came to live in Goražde from the
neighbouring villages and from some other far away places, having
been attracted by the economic growth of Goražde. According to
the census of 1961 Goražde had 8,812 inhabitants. Before World
War II the industry of Goražde comprised mainly retail trade
and in some measure wholesale trade, the catering industry,
handicraft, transport. During the occupation, 1941–1945,
industry was destroyed and about 45% of the existing houses as
well. Since then Goražde's industry has been systematically
developing, its main branches being manufacturing, building,
transport, trade and crafts. In 1981 Gorazde's GDP per capita was
70% of the Yugoslav average.[1] After the II World War a new
period, marked by a tremendous social and economic rise began. A
number of new industrial enterprises have been founded, among which
the most significant is the Nitrogen Factory. After breakup of
Yugoslavia From 1992 to 1995 during the Bosnian War, Goražde
was one of six Bosniak enclaves, along with Srebrenica and
Žepa, surrounded and besieged by the Bosnian Serb Army. In
April 1993 it was made into a United Nations Safe Area in which the
United Nations was supposed to protect the civilian population from
attack. Between March 30 and April 23, 1994, the Serbs launched a
major offensive against the town. After air strikes against Serb
tanks and outposts and a NATO ultimatum, Serbian forces agreed to
withdraw their artillery and armored vehicles 20 km from the
town.[2] After the negotiation of the Dayton accords, a land
corridor was established between Goražde and the Federation.
In literature The 1992-1995 siege of Goražde is the subject of
two books, both underlining the mixture of brutality and humanity
that punctuated the era. Savo Heleta's Not My Turn to Die is
written by a survivor who was a Serb-Bosnian teenager whose family
was at once under fire from the Serb bombardments and under
suspicion as Serbs in the mostly Bosniak town.[3][4] Safe Area
Gorazde is an award-winning graphic novel by Joe Sacco, a reporter
who visited the besieged town several times during the period.[5]
Another book that is centred heavily on Goražde is 'No Escape
Zone' authored by Nick Richardson. Richardson is a former Fleet Air
Arm pilot who was shot down in the region of Goražde on a NATO
bombing mission. He spent several weeks inside the city and tells
of the conditions and daily shelling residents and UN forces
faceed.

Additional Hints (Decrypt)

Fgbar va funcr bs urneg ...

Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)