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Traditional Geocache

Diocletian's Palace

A cache by glavomlat Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 11/16/2015
In Croatia
Difficulty:
2 out of 5
Terrain:
1.5 out of 5

Size: Size: micro (micro)

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Geocache Description:

HR:

Kutijica skrivena u okolici Dioklecianove palače.

EN:

Geocache hidden in surroundings of Diocletian's Palace.


HR:

Dioklecijanova palača je antička palača cara Dioklecijana u Splitu. Oko 300. godine podigao ju je rimski car Dioklecijan i u njoj boravio nakon povlačenja s prijestolja (305.) do smrti (316.).
Sagrađena je u uvali poluotoka 5 km jugozapadno od Salone, glavnoga grada provincije Dalmacije. Ostatci palače danas su dio povijesne jezgre Splita koja je upisana na UNESCO-v popis mjesta svjetske baštine u Europi još 1979. godine.
Svojim oblikom nalikuje kastrumu - vojnom logoru. Vanjski su zidovi gotovo pravokutni, dimenzija 175-181 x 216 m, a kule na uglovima palače slijede tradiciju vojne arhitekture. Budući je palača bila udaljena od najbližeg velikog grada 6 km (Salona), bila je okružena bedemima. I unutrašnji raspored palače podsjeća na vojni logor - cardo i decumanus, glavne okomite ulice odgovaraju glavnim logorskim ulicama via praetoria i via principalis. Postojala su četiri ulaza u palaču. Tri s kopnene i jedan s morske strane. Cijeli prostor palače bio je podjeljen na dva dijela, ali različite namjene. U sjevernom dijelu bile su smještene zgrade za poslugu, vojsku, skladišta i dr. U južnom, raskošnijem dijelu, koji je zbog izravnavanja sa sjevernim bio podignut nad zasvođenim supstrukcijama (tzv. podrumi palače), nalazili su se objekti namjenjeni carskoj obitelji. Ni fasade nisu bile jednake.
Najreprezentativnija je bila ona južna, okrenuta prema moru. U donjem dijelu (kojeg je u Dioklecijanovo vrijeme zapljuskivalo more) nalazili su se manji otvori i vrata tzv. porta aenea (Mjedena vrata). Istočna i zapadna fasada su međusobno slične i bez ukrasa, a vrata na njima zovu se porta argentea (Srebrna vrata) i porta ferrea (Željezna vrata). Na sjevernoj fasadi bio je glavni ulaz u palaču s dvostrukim vratima s arhitravom - porta aurea (Zlatna vrata), na kojem je ležao luk s nišama u kojima se se nalazili kipovi (vjerojatno Jupitera i četiri tetrarha). Od dviju glavnih ulica, cardo je vodio na peristil, otvoreni prostor ispred carevog stana, na čijoj se lijevoj strani nalazio carev mauzolej (danas katedrala sv. Dujma). S desne strane peristila nalazila su se tri hrama. Prvi je Jupiterov, a druga dva danas se nazivaju Kibelinim i Venerinim, iako ti nazivi nisu potvrđeni. U carev stan ulazilo se iz protirona preko vestibula. Nekadašnji se raspored prostorija može rekonstruirati uz pomoć prizemnih dvorana, koje su jednakog rasporeda.
Po svojoj kompoziciji Dioklecijanova palača nosi u sebi elemente carske vile, helenističkog grada i utvrđenog vojnog logora (castrum). Sa stanovišta konstruiranja u palači su u većem dijelu rasponi savladavani upotrebom luka, odnosno svoda, koji sile prenose koso na temelje, dok su u reprezentativnim dijelovima rasponi svladani upotrebom kamene grede. Masivnim, fino obrađenim kamenom zidani su reprezentativni dijelovi kao i svi drugi dijelovi koji su izloženi većim naprezanjima. Žbukani ili obloženi dijelovi zida građeni su sitnim kamenom, poravnatim u određenim razmacima s četiri reda opeka. Svodovi su izvedeni od laganog riječnog kamena (sedre), dijelovi većih koncentriranih naprezanja u svodovima građeni su od opeke. Stropne i krovne konstrukcije bile su drvene. Dekorativna obrada na arhitektonskim elementima karakteristična je za način rada u istočnom dijelu Rimskog Carstva. Iz dimenzija sačuvanih dijelova proizlazi da je palača građena prema projektu koji je bio kotiran rimskim stopama.
Smrću cara Dioklecijana 316. godine život u palači ne gasi se, a preobražaji počinju već u prvim stoljećima života palače. Budući je bila u posjedu rimskog dvora, pružala je utočište prognanim članovima carske obitelji, a najbitniji događaj bio je rušenje Salone početkom 6. stoljeća kada je dio prognanog stanovništva našao utočište unutar zidina palače i kada počinje novi, organizirani gradski život.
U razdoblju slobodne srednjovjekovne komune, između 12. i 14. stoljeća, dolazi do većeg arhitektonskog razvoja, kada su brojne srednjovijekovne kuće ispunile ne samo rimske zgrade nego i veći dio slobodnog prostora ulica i trijemova. U tom razdoblju započinje i izgradnja romaničkog zvonika Katedrale sv. Dujma.
Juraj Dalmatinac - oltar sv. Staša
Romanička je umjetnost zastupljena i radovima velikih majstora kao što su Andrija Buvina koji je izradio drvena vrata katedrale u 13 stoljeću i Juraj Dalmatinac, iz čije su radionice potekle raskošne plemičke palače u oblicima venecijanske gotike s naznakama renesanse (npr. palača obitelji Papalić). U katedrali je i njegovo remek-djelo, oltar sv. Staša.
Od 7. stoljeća palača živi kao grad Split, koji se već od ranog srednjeg vijeka širi prema zapadu i u više navrata zatvara zidovima. Adaptacije sakralnih objekata palače u splitsku katedralu i krstionicu, predromaničke crkvice sv. Martina i Gospe od zvonika, predromaničke, romaničke, gotičke, renesansne i druge građevine, svjedoci su neprekidnog života grada i nastanka novih kvaliteta, koji sa sačuvanim dijelovima Dioklecijanove palače čine cjelinu najvećih vrijednosti graditeljskog nasljeđa.
Dioklecijanova palača nije samo izvanredan antički spomenik, nego je i nacionalno i svjetsko dobro. Zajedno s kasnijom srednjovjekovnom dogradnjom ona čini vrijedan arheološki i povijesno-umjetnički kompleks i zato je 1979. godine uvrštena na UNESCO-ov popis svjetske baštine.

EN:

Diocletian's Palace is an ancient palace built by the Roman emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD, that today forms the center of the city of Split. While it is referred to as a "palace" because of its intended use as the retirement residence of Diocletian, the term can be misleading as the structure is massive and more resembles a large fortress: about half of it was for Diocletian's personal use, and the rest housed the military garrison.
Diocletian built the massive palace in preparation for his retirement on 1 May 305 AD. It lies in a bay on the south side of a short peninsula running out from the Dalmatian coast, four miles from Salona, the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia. The terrain slopes gently seaward and is typical karst, consisting of low limestone ridges running east to west with marl in the clefts between them.
After the Romans abandoned the site, the Palace remained empty for several centuries. In the 7th century, nearby residents fled to the walled palace in an effort to escape invading Slavs. Since then the palace has been occupied, with residents making their homes and businesses within the palace basement and directly in its walls. Today many restaurants and shops, and some homes, can still be found within the walls.
After the Middle Ages the palace was virtually unknown in the West until the Scottish neo-classical architect Robert Adam had the ruins surveyed and, with the aid of French artist and antiquary Charles-Louis Clérisseau and several draughtsmen, published Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia (London, 1764).
Diocletian's palace was an inspiration for Adam's new style of Neoclassical architecture and the publication of measured drawings brought it into the design vocabulary of European architecture for the first time. A few decades later, in 1782, the French painter Louis-François Cassas created drawings of the palace, published by Joseph Lavallée (fr) in 1802 in the chronicles of his voyages.
This palace is today, with all the most important historical buildings, in the centre of the city of Split. Diocletian's Palace far transcends local importance because of its degree of preservation. The Palace is one of the most famous and complete architectural and cultural features on the Croatian Adriatic coast. As the world's most complete remains of a Roman palace, it holds an outstanding place in Mediterranean, European and world heritage.
The ground plan of the palace is an irregular rectangle (approximately 160 meters x 190 meters) with towers projecting from the western, northern, and eastern facades. It combines qualities of a luxurious villa with those of a military camp, with its huge gates and watchtowers. The palace is enclosed by walls, and at times, it housed over 9000 people. Subterranean portions of the palace feature barrel vaulted stonework.
Only the southern facade, which rose directly from, or very near to, the sea, was unfortified. The elaborate architectural composition of the arcaded gallery on its upper floor differs from the more severe treatment of the three shore facades. A monumental gate in the middle of each of these walls led to an enclosed courtyard. The southern sea gate (the Porta Aenea) was simpler in shape and dimensions than the other three, and it is thought that it was originally intended either as the emperor's private access to the sea, or as a service entrance for supplies.
The design is derived from both villa and castrum types, and this duality is also evident in the arrangement of the interior. The transverse road (decumanus) linking the eastern gate (the Silver Gate or Porta argentea) and western gate (the Iron Gate or Porta ferrea) divided the complex into two-halves. In the southern half were the more luxurious structures; that is, the emperor's apartments, both public and private, and religious buildings. The emperor's apartments formed a block along the sea front and were situated above a substructure because the sloping terrain demanded significant differences in level. Although for many centuries almost completely filled with refuse, most of the substructure is well preserved, and indicates the original shape and disposition of the rooms above.
A monumental court, called the Peristyle, formed the northern access to the imperial apartments. It also gave access to Diocletian's mausoleum on the east (now Cathedral of St. Domnius), and to three temples on the west (two of which are now lost, the third having become a baptistery, originally being the temple of Jupiter). There is a temple just to the west of the Peristylum called The Temple of the Aesculapius, which has a semi cylindrical roof made out of hand carved stone blocks which did not leak until the 1940s, and was then covered with a lead roof. The temple was restored recently.
The northern half of the palace, divided in two parts by the main north-south street (cardo) leading from the Golden Gate (Porta aurea) to the Peristyle, is less well preserved. It is usually supposed that each part was a residential complex, housing soldiers, servants, and possibly some other facilities. Both parts were apparently surrounded by streets. Leading to perimeter walls there were rectangular buildings, possibly storage magazines.
The Palace is built of white local limestone and marble of high quality, most of which was from Brač marble quarries on the island of Brač, of tuff taken from the nearby river beds, and of brick made in Salonitan and other factories. Some material for decoration was imported: Egyptian granite columns, fine marble for revetments and some capitals produced in workshops in the Proconnesos. The Palace was decorated with numerous 3500-year-old granite sphinxes, originating from the site of Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III. Only three have survived the centuries. One is still on the Peristyle, the second sits headless in front of Jupiter's temple, and a third is in the city museum.

Additional Hints (Decrypt)

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Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)



 

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Last Updated: on 10/17/2017 9:50:47 AM Pacific Daylight Time (4:50 PM GMT)
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Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum

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