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Limestone of St Domnius

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Hidden : 03/22/2016
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Dioklecijanova palača

Dioklecijanova palača je jedan od najbolje sačuvanih spomenika rimskoga graditeljstva na svijetu. Careva je palača bila sagrađena kao spoj luksuzne vile - ljetnikovca i rimskog vojničkog logora (castruma), podijeljenoga na četiri dijela dvjema glavnim ulicama. Južni dio Palače bio je u toj shemi predviđen za cara, njegov stan i odgovarajući državni i vjerski ceremonijal, dok je sjeverni bio za carsku stražu - vojsku, poslugu, za spremišta i slično. Palača je pravokutna građevina (oko 215 x 180 metara) sa četiri velike kule na kutovima, vratima na svakoj od četiri strane i sa po četiri manje kule na zidovima. Donji dio zidina bez ikakvih je otvora, dok je gornji kat rastvoren monumentalnim trijemom na jugu i hodnicima s velikim lučnim prozorima na ostalim trima stranama. Tijekom stoljeća stanovnici palače, a potom i građani Splita adaptirali su te prostore za sebi odgovarajuće potrebe, pa su tako i zgrade u unutrašnjosti i vanjski zidovi s kulama uvelike promijenili prvobitni izgled, no obrisi carske palače i dalje su vrlo vidljivi.



Peristil

Peristil je kao središnji trg Palače, smješten u dijelu u kojem je bilo izgrađeno nekoliko hramova, bio namijenjen caru Dioklecijanu, slavljenog kao živi sin Jupiterov. Car se pojavljivao pod arhitravnim lukom središnjeg dijela protirona, podanici su mu pristupali, klečeći mu ljubili skute njegova grimiznog plašta, ili pred njim padali ničice, ležeći cijelim tijelom na zemlji. Crvena boja granitnih stupova naglašava ceremonijalnu funkciju. Naime, od cara Dioklecijana purpur postaje bojom cara.

Gradnjom novoga gradskog trga s vijećnicom (Pjaca) u 13./14. st., Peristil postaje vjersko središte. Danas ga sa zapada zatvaraju palače splitskih plemićkih obitelji Grisogono, Cipci i Skočibušić, naslonjene na njegove autentične kolone i lukove. Svojim renesansnim i gotičkim stilom gradnje i same postaju spomenicima.

Zahvaljujući svojoj jedinstvenoj ljepoti i nesvakidašnjoj akustici, Peristil je postao idealna kazališna scena, kao stvorena za operne klasike ili djela antičke literature, ali i pozornica na kojoj se odvija bogati gradski život. Ispiti kavu na stepenicama uokolo Peristila jedinstveni je doživljaj, jedan od najbližih dodira suvremenog čovjeka s antičkim nasljeđem, ne samo rimskim, nego i egipatskim, jer nad Peristilom budno bdi 3500 godina stara i sjajno sačuvana sfinga, svjedok splitske povijesti. Zato je i papa Ivan Pavao II na tome mjestu zadivljen rekao "Bože moj, koliko li je nogu ovuda gazilo", zato i Splićani Peristil smatraju centrom Splita i cijelog svijeta.



Katedrala Sv. Duje

Među europskim katedralama splitska ima za sjedište najstariju građevinu - mauzolej rimskog cara Dioklecijana. U njoj, na koncu drugog milenija, povijest izmiruje pogansku antičku, kršćansku srednjovjekovnu i modernu baštinu. Mauzolej cara-progonitelja kršćana postaje sredinom 7. stoljeća katedralom u kojoj su na počasnim mjestima postavljeni oltari s relikvijama Svetog Dujma i Svetog Staša, mučenika pogubljenih u obližnjem Solinu.

Vanjski oktogon mauzoleja bio je opkoljen trijemom (peripterom) na 24 stupa. U unutrašnjosti ima kružni oblik sa četiri polukružne i četiri pravokutne niše. U sredini je stajao Dioklecijanov sarkofag, kasnije uništen. Iznad niša se diže osam korintskih stupova od crvenog granita, a nad njima još osam manjih. Na vijencu koji teče uokolo reljefno su prikazani Eroti u lovu, maske i ljudske glave. Osobito su zanimljiva dva medaljona s vrpcama, na kojima arheolozi i splitska tradicija prepoznaju portrete cara Dioklecijana i žene mu Priske. Osobito je zanimljiva konstrukcija kupole zidane lepezastim slaganjem opeka u donjem te kružnim slaganjem u gornjoj trećini. Kupola je sjajila svjetlucavim mozaikom kao i ona u Vestibulu.

Katedrala je, prije svega, danas liturgijsko mjesto čiji tisućljetni kontinuitet najbolje odražava svakonedjeljna misa i obnovljeni sjaj procesije o danu splitskog zaštitnika Svetog Dujma. Najznamenitiji dio katedrale su vratnice koje je 1214. u orahovini izrezbario Splićanin Andrija Buvina, na čija dva krila se na 14 kaseta prikazuju prizori iz Evanđelja, od Gabrijelova navještenja do Kristova uskrsnuća.

Lijevo od ulaza nalazi se šesterostrana propovjedaonica iz 13. stoljeća, građena od skupocjenog zelenog porfira, nekoć pozlaćenog u cijelosti. Desni je bočni oltar bio posvećen salonitanskom biskupu i mučeniku Svetom Dujmu. Oltarski ciborij podigao je Bonino da Milano 1427. godine u kasnogotičkom stilu, a freskama četiriju evanđelista oltar je ukrasio splitski kasnogotički slikar Dujam Vušković 1429. godine. Lijevi je bočni oltar suzaštitnika Splita, solinskog mučenika tangara Anastasija Akvilejskoga, izradio 1448. najveći hrvatski graditelj i kipar svoga doba Juraj Dalmatinac. Osobito je lijep središnji reljef na sarkofagu s prikazom Bičevanja Kristova, gdje Dalmatinac prikazuje Krista pokrenuta mukom i bolju. Glavni je oltar podignut između 1685. i 1689. godine. U sjevernoj niši nalazi se oltar koji je izradio mletački kipar Morlaiter 1767. godine, u kojem od 1770. leže moći Sv. Duje iz Boninova oltara. Najznačajnije djelo u baroknom koru katedrale su drveni nasloni klupa koje su izvorno stajale pred glavnim oltarom, izrezbareni u prvoj polovici 13. stoljeća.

Zvonik katedrale (57 m) je najizvornija dalmatinska srednjovjekovna građevina započeta u 13. stoljeću. Zvonik je na prijelazu iz 19. u 20. stoljeće temeljito obnovljen i ponešto izmijenjen. Danas se stepenicama moguće popeti na vrh zvonika, s kojega se pruža spektakularni pogled na cijeli Split.



Što je vapnenac?

Vapnenac je sedimentna stijena sastavljena uglavnom od kalcijevog karbonata (CaCO3) u obliku mineralnog kalcita. Vapnenačke forme najbolje su vidljive i prepoznatljive u toplim, plitkim morskim vodama. Vapnenac je obično biološka (organska) sedimentna stijena nastala taloženjem školjaka, koralja, algi i fekalnih ostataka.

Također, može biti i kemijski (anorganski) formirana sedimentna stijena nastala taloženjem kalcijevog karbonata iz jezera, mora ili oceana.

Nastajanje vapnenca - marinski

Većina vapnenaca nastaje u plitkim, mirnim i toplim morskim vodama. U morskom okruženju lako dolazi do izvlačenja kalcijevog karbonata iz školjaka i kostura potrebnih za formiranje vapnenca. Nakon što morski organizmi izumru njihove oklopne i skeletne krhotine talože se kao sediment koji se pretvara u vapnenac. Njihovi otpadni proizvodi (kakica) također mogu doprinijeti taloženju. Vapnenci nastali na ovakav način nazivaju se biološkim sedimentnim stijenama. Njihovo biološko podrijetlo otkrivamo prisutnošću fosila u stijeni.

Neki vapnenci mogu nastati izravnim taloženjem kalcijeva karbonata iz morske ili slatke vode. Vapnence nastale na ovaj način nazivamo kemijskim sedimentnim stijenama. Po svojoj strukturi manje su obilni od biološkim vapnenaca.

Danas je na Zemlji puno vapnenačko oblikovanih okruženja. Većina ih se nalazi u pličinama između 30 stupnjeva sjeverne geografske širine i 30 stupnjeva južne geografske širine.

Nastajanje vapnenca - isparavanjem

Vapnenac može nastati i isparavanjem. Stalaktiti, stalagmiti i ostali spiljski oblici takvi su primjeri vapnenca. U pećini, kapljice vode cure odozgo kroz pukotine ili pore i dolaze do spiljskih stropova. Prije pada na pod spilje može doći do isparavanja. Kako voda isparava tako se kalcijev karbonat taloži na stropu spilje. Tijekom vremena proces isparavanja može rezultirati nastankom vrhova kalcijeva karbonata na stropu spilje. Takve naslage počinju tvoriti stalaktite. Moguć je i obrnuti proces kada se isparavanje događa na tlu spilje što omogućava nastanak stalagmita.

Vapnenac koji tako tvori spiljske oblike poznat je i kao „sedra“ te pripada kemijskim sedimentnim stijenama. Stijena poznata kao „tuf“ vapnenac je nastao isparavanjem vrućih izvora, obala jezera ili sličnih područja.

Sastav vapnenca

Vapnenac je po definiciji kamen koji sadrži najmanje 50% kalcijevog karbonata u obliku kalcitne mase. Svi vapnenci sadržavaju barem nekoliko postotaka drugih materijala. To mogu biti maleni udjeli kvarca, feldspata, gline, pirita, siderita i ostalih materijala. Također mogu sadržavati veće komade rožnjaka, pirita ili siderita.

Prisustvo kalcijevog karbonata u vapnencu daje mogućnost lake identifikacije stijene, koja se izložena hladnoj otopini 5%-tne solne kiseline – zapjeni.

Fosili

Na svim spomenutim lokacijama, pronaći ćete ne samo lijep primjer sedimentne stijene vapnenca, već i veliki broj fosila. Što su uopće fosili? Oni su sve ono što dokazuje život u prošlim vremenima. Taj se dokaz prošlog života javlja u dva oblika. On može biti izravan ili neizravan.

Izravan dokaz života su fosili koje čine čvrsti dijelovi organizama. U slučaju životinja, to mogu biti fosilizirane kosti ili školjke. Ili, kada su u pitanju biljke, to može biti fosilizirano drvo ili lišće. U nekim slučajevima, fosiliziran može biti i cijeli organizam, i njegovi meki i njegovi čvrsti dijelovi. Primjeri takvih fosila su insekti zarobljeni u jantaru ili mamuti smrznuti u ledu.

Neizravan dokaz života su fosilni tragovi. To su različiti otisci stopala, repova, tragova, koje su organizmi ostavljali, a zatim su fosilizirani. Koproliti (fosilizirana kakica) su također jedan primjer fosilnih tragova.

Klasifikacija

Dva su velika klasifikacijska sustava kojima se služimo prilikom identifikacije i klasifikacije vapnenačkih i karbonatnih stijena: Folkov i Dunhamov.

Folkova klasifikacija

Robert L. Folk razvio je klasifikacijski sustav koji u prvi plan stavlja detaljnu strukturu zrna i naglašava primarnu detaljnost sastava zrna i ostalih materijala u karbonatnim stijenama. Razlikuje tri vrste sastojaka: alokeme (zrna), matriks (uglavnom mikrit) i cement (sparit). Folkov sustav koristi dvodijelne nazive: prvi dio se odnosi na dominantnost zrna, a drugi na prevladavajuće vezivo (mikrit ili sparit). Prilikom korištenja Folkovog sustava preporuča se koristiti petrografov mikroskop jer je lakše odrediti prisutne komponente u svakom uzorku.


Dunhamova klasifikacija

Dunhamova klasifikacija temelji se na strukturnim značajkama. Svako ime temelji se na teksturi zrna koje čini vapnenac. Dunham je 1962. godine objavio svoj sustav klasifikacije koji dijeli stijene u četiri glavne skupine temeljem relativnih proporcija grubljih klastičnih čestica. Dunhanovi nazivi osnova su za određivanje stijena.

Bavio se pitanjem jesu li ili nisu izvorna zrna u međusobnom kontaktu, podržavaju li se međusobno ili su karakteristična vidljiva razgraničenja. Za razliku od Folka, Dunham se bavio poroznošću stijena. Dunhamova klasifikacija je korisnija i kvalitetnija jer se temelji na teksturi, a ne na ispitivanju zrna u uzorku.



Da biste prijavili pronalazak potrebno je odgovoriti na sljedeća pitanja:

1. Opišite teksturu i boju vapnenca na Katedrali Sv. Duje!

2. Jesu li ovi vapnenci biološki ili kemijski vapnenci? Objasnite?

3. Pretražite lokaciju i pronađite barem jedan fosil. Je li taj fosil direktan ili indirektan dokaz o prošlom životu? (objasnite)

4. Kolika je visina i širina ulaznih vrata u Katedralu?

5. Zašto je Dunhamova metoda klasifikacije bolja od Folkove?

6. Priložite sliku s GPS-om (nije obvezno)

Pošaljite odgovore e-poštom (putem GC profila). Slobodno upišite pronalazak, a ako nešto nije u redu, obavijestit ću vas!




Mapa Splita / Map of Split





Diocletian Palace

Diocletian Palace is one of the best preserved monuments of the Roman architecture in the world. The Emperor's Palace was built as a combination of a luxury villa - summer house and a Roman military camp (castrum), divided into four parts with two main streets. Southern part of the Palace was, in this scheme, intended for the Emperor's apartment and appropriate governmental and religious ceremonies, while the north part was for the Imperial guard - the military, servants, storage etc. The Palace is a rectangular building (approximately 215 x 180 meters) with four large towers at the corners, doors on each of the four sides and four small towers on the walls. The lower part of the walls has no openings, while the upper floor is open with a monumental porch on the south and halls with grand arch windows on the other three sides. Over the centuries the Palace inhabitants, and later also the citizens of Split adapted parts of the palace for their own requirements, thus the inside buildings as well as the exterior walls with the towers significantly changed the original appearance, but the outlines of the Imperial Palace are still very visible.



Peristyle (Peristil)

Peristyle, as the central square of the Palace, intended for the Emperor Diocletian celebrated as the living son of Jupiter, finds its place among many temples. The Emperor would appear under the architrave of the central part of Protyron, and his subjects would approach him, kneeling down, kissing the hem of his scarlet cloak, or they would fall in front of him, their entire body to the ground.

The red color of the granite columns emphasises the ceremonial function. Namely, ever since the Emperor Diocletian the color purple became the imperial color. With the construction of a new city square with the town hall (Pjaca) in the 13th/14th century, Peristyle became a religious centre. Today it boarders from the West with Palaces of Split noble families Grisogono, Cipci and Skočibušić, as they lean on its authentic columns and arches. With their Renaissance and Gothic architecture they themselves became monuments.

Owing to its unique beauty and unusual acoustics, Peistyle became the ideal theatre scenery, perfect for opera classics and works of ancient literature, but also the stage where abundant urban life continues. Having your coffee on the steps circling Peristyle is a unique experience, one of the closest touches of a modern man with the ancient heritage, not only Roman, but also Egyptian, as the Peristyle is closely watched over by a 3500 old and perfectly preserved sphinx, the witness of Split's history in making. This is why John Paul the II in amazement said "Dear God, how many feet have stepped through here", and this is why citizens of Split think of Peristyle as the centre of Split and the entire world.



Cathedral of Saint Domnius

Among the European cathedrals the one in Split finds its seat in the oldest building - the Mausoleum of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. Inside the cathedral, at the end of the second millennium, the history reconciles ancient pagan, Christian Medieval and modern heritage. Mausoleum of the Emperor - persecutor of Christians becomes a cathedral in the 7th century where altars with relics of St Domnius and St Anastasius, martyrs executed in the nearby Solin, take an honorary place.

Outer octagon of the mausoleum is enclosed by an aisle (peripter) formed of 24 columns. In its interior it has a circular form with four semicircular and four rectangular niches. In the middle stood the Diocletian's sarcophagus, later destroyed. Above the niches rise eight red granite Corinthian pillars, and above them another eight smaller ones.

The cornice circling above shows a relief of erots hunting, masks and human heads. Two medallions with bows are specially interesting as the archaeologists and Split's tradition recognize in them the portraits of Emperor Diocletian and his wife Prisca.

Of particular interest is also the construction of the cupola with its fan-like arrangement of bricks in the lower part and a circular arrangement in its upper third. The cupola gleamed with glittering mosaics just like the one in the Vestibule.

Cathedral today is primarily a place of liturgy, with a millennium long continuity, best reflected in the Sunday mass and the renewed splendor of the procession on the St Domnius's day - the day of Split's patron saint. The renowned part of the Cathedral are its gates carved in walnut by Andrija Buvina from Split. The two door posts show fourteen tablets each with scenes from the Gospels, from the Gabriel's Annunciation to the Resurrection of Christ.

Left of the entrance is a hexagonal pulpit from the 13th century, made of precious green porphyry, once gilded in its entirety. The Altar on the right was dedicated to the Salona's Bishop and martyr St Domnius.

The altar's ciborium was erected by Bonino da Milano in 1427 in the late Gothic style, while the decoration of frescoes of four evangelists was down to the late Gothic painter Dujam Vušković from Split in 1429.

Left side altar of the second patron of Split, the Solin martyr craftsman Anastasius of Aquileia, was made in 1448 by the greatest Croatian architect and sculptor of his time Juraj Dalmatinac. Especially impressive is the central relief on the sarcophagus depicting the Flagellation of Christ, where Dalmatinac shows Christ twisted by the torment and pain.

The main altar was built from 1685 till 1689. The altar, in the northern niche, with St Domnius's remains from the Bonino's altar (since 1770), was built by the Venetian sculptor Morlaiter in 1767. The most important work in the Baroque choir of the Cathedral are the wooden bench-rests which originally stood in front of the main altar, carved in the first half of the 13th century.

The bell tower of the Cathedral (57m) is the most original Dalmatian Medieval architecture started in the 13th century. The bell tower was thoroughly reconstructed and somewhat altered at the turn of the 20th century. Today you can climb the steps all the way to the top of the bell tower, where a spectacular view of the entire Split awaits you.




What is Limestone?

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. It most commonly forms in clear, warm, shallow marine waters. It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal and fecal debris. It can also be a chemical sedimentary rock formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water.

Limestone-Forming Environment - Marine

Most limestones form in shallow, calm, warm marine waters. That type of environment is where organisms capable of forming calcium carbonate shells and skeletons can easily extract the needed ingredients from ocean water. When these animals die their shell and skeletal debris accumulate as sediment that might be lithified into limestone. Their waste products can also contribute to the sediment mass. Limestones formed from this type of sediment are biological sedimentary rocks. Their biological origin is often revealed in the rock by the presence of fossils.

Some limestones can form by direct precipitation of calcium carbonate from marine or fresh water. Limestones formed this way are chemical sedimentary rocks. They are thought to be less abundant than biological limestones.

Today Earth has many limestone-forming environments. Most of them are found in shallow water areas between 30 degrees north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude.

Limestone-Forming Environment - Evaporative

Limestone can also form through evaporation. Stalactites, stalagmites and other cave formations (often called "speleothems") are examples of limestone that formed through evaporation. In a cave, droplets of water seeping down from above enter the cave through fractures or other pore spaces in the cave ceiling. There they might evaporate before falling to the cave floor. When the water evaporates, any calcium carbonate that was dissolved in the water will be deposited on the cave ceiling. Over time this evaporative process can result in an accumulation of icicle-shaped calcium carbonate on the cave ceiling. These deposits are known as stalactites. If the droplet falls to the floor and evaporates there a stalagmite could grow upwards from the cave floor.

The limestone that makes up these cave formations is known as "travertine" and is a chemical sedimentary rock. A rock known as "tufa" is a limestone formed by evaporation at a hot spring, lake shore, or other area.

Composition of Limestone

Limestone is by definition a rock that contains at least 50% calcium carbonate in the form of calcite by weight. All limestones contain at least a few percent other materials. These can be small particles of quartz, feldspar, clay minerals, pyrite, siderite and other minerals. It can also contain large nodules of chert, pyrite or siderite.

The calcium carbonate content of limestone gives it a property that is often used in rock identification - it effervesces in contact with a cold solution of 5% hydrochloric acid.

On EarthCache location, you can find not only nice example of sedimentary rock limestone, but also nice examples of fossils. What are fossils, anyway? Well, they are anything that provides evidence of life in past ages. That evidence of life in past ages can come in two types. It can be either direct evidence or indirect evidence of past life.

Direct evidence of life are fossils of hard body parts of organisms. They can be fossilized bones or shells in case of animals. Or it can be fossilized wood or leaves in case of plants. In some cases, the entire organism can be fossilized, together with both soft and hard parts. Example of such fossils are insects trapped in amber or mammoths frozen in ice.

Indirect evidence of life are trace fossils. They are various footprints, trails, marks that were left by organisms and then fossilized. Coprolites (fossilized poo) is also one example of trace fossils.

Classification

Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying limestone and carbonate rocks.

Folk classification

Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems (grains), matrix (mostly micrite), and cement (sparite). The Folk system uses two-part names; the first refers to the grains and the second is the root. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample.

Dunham classification

The Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains that make up the limestone. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962; it focuses on the depositional fabric of carbonate rocks. Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are essentially for rock families. His efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were originally in mutual contact, and therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock. The Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample.



To get the log permission, please answer the following questions:

1. Describe the texture AND color of the limestone at Cathedral?

2. Is this limestone biological or chemical limestone? Why?

3. Search the EC location and find at least one fossil. Is this fossil direct evidence or indirect evidence of past life? (explain)

4. What is the high and width of Cathedral's entrance?

5. Why Dunham’s classification is better than Folk’s classification?

6. Take a photo with GPS (optional)


Please email me your answers in english (via GC-Profile). You don't have to wait for a permission to log. If your answers are incorrect, I will inform you



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