The station opened on Wednesday 27th July 1881 and in 1883, a northwards extension opened from Swindon Town to Cirencester, with further northward extension to a junction with the Great Western Railway's Cheltenham to Banbury at Andoversford opening in 1891, this enabled through trains from the Midlands to the south, through Chiseldon.
The Swindon, Marlborough and Andover Railway and the Swindon and Cheltenham Extension Railway had in 1884 amalgamated to form the Midland and South Western Junction Railway.
Chiseldon was sited on a curved section of track in the middle of the village of Chiseldon, and was for many years busy with both goods traffic, primarily agricultural, and passengers. In the First World War a long siding was built to a nearby army camp, then called Draycott (though the nearest village to it is now spelt as Draycot Foliat), and in the Second World War too the area was the site of considerable military activity, though by then a small halt, Chiseldon Camp Halt, had been built on the line about a mile south of Chiseldon station to serve the military.
As a whole, traffic on the M&SWJR fell steeply after the Second World War with the increased use of motor transportation and vehicles and the line closed to passengers with goods facilities withdrawn from this section of the line at the same time, on Monday 11th September 1961.
Sadly there is no trace of the station remaining.