d) Le gel-dégel
Les conséquences de l'action du gel sont bien connus sur les roches friables et fissurées. La succession des cycles de gel-dégel y provoque des décrochements de diverses dimensions. Plus le nombre de cycles de gel-dégel est élevé, plus le processus est actif et agressif.
e) Les autres agents d'érosion
Parmi les autres agents d'érosion, il faut mentionner la dessiccation (fracturation du sol lors de sécheresse), l'activité sismique (qui provoque des mouvements de masse) et les actions directes de l'homme (déforestation, dévégétalisation,
Whatever the nature of the substrate and the characteristics of the environment, the coast is subject to two groups of agents that contribute to coastal erosion: coastal agents and subaerial agents.
1) Coastal agents
The most frequently encountered littoral agents are waves and currents.
a) The waves
The waves are formed by a process of energy transfer from the wind to the surface of the water. The body of water is then pushed in the direction of the wind forming waves that cause the wear of the cliffs and microfalaisesmeubles. This action is maximized when a storm occurs at the same time as a high tide. Wave action consists of gnawing the shoreline and clearing sediments that have fallen at the foot of the cliffs. In the case of rocky cliffs, the wave has an impact only if it is laden with sediments and debris that cause abrasion of the foot of the cliffs and the surface of rocky foreshores.
The waves, the waves produced by the boats, increase the effectiveness of the natural waves or causes them when there are none or few.
The sediments collected by the waves can be displaced by the current of the coastal drift. This is caused by the waves, directed by the prevailing winds, striking the shore obliquely. A large part of the sediments collected at a given point will then be redistributed along the coast in the direction of the littoral drift. The direction of the littoral drift is likely to be reversed when the winds change direction. However, the coastal drift current has a predominant direction that can be observed in particular by the direction of the coastal arrows.
The tidal stream is not an erosion agent in itself. Being an oscillatory current, its role is to vary the water level so that, according to its amplitude and the slope of the foreshore, the waves will be able to go further on the beach.
2) Subaerial agents
Part of the erosion can be attributed to continental processes, which then become complementary to marine processes. These are the subaerial agents and they fall into five categories: precipitation, gravity, wind, freeze-thaw and other erosion agents.
Heavy rains and spring snowmelt are responsible for runoff and gully. These processes, when acting on portions of land without vegetation, can increase erosion by causing landslides.
Suffering is also a phenomenon due to heavy rainfall. This process is active in sandy cliffs resting on clay. In heavy rain, water penetrates the sand to the impermeable clay. The soil then swells with water and there is an underground drainage channel at the edge of clay and sand. The sediments are then expelled and the soil collapses.
Gravity means mass movements such as recesses, landslides, landslides, collapses and gullying. These processes mainly affect cliffs more than 10 meters high. There are also mixed forms involving several processes, such as the suffusion ravines.
Mass movements often have devastating effects, but they are also part of the phenomena that feed the littoral into sediments. In fact, it has often been observed that sediments slipped on the coastline were rapidly reworked by the waves.
c) The wind
Wind power is a process linked to the action of the wind. Generally negligible, the erosion by the wind activity is carried out on the top of beach exposed to the prevailing winds. The littoral arrows and the recent littoral ridges represent very sensitive places to wind.
The consequences of the action of the gel are well known on friable and cracked rocks. The succession of freeze-thaw cycles there causes recesses of various dimensions. The higher the number of freeze-thaw cycles, the more active and aggressive the process.
e) Other erosion agents
Other erosion agents include desiccation (soil fracturing during drought), seismic activity (which causes mass movements) and direct actions by humans (deforestation, de-vegetation,
rip rap, etc.).
!! L'accès au Quai Letourneur est fermé aux piétons !!
Pour atteindre la zone d'observation, vous devez soit utiliser une embarcation, soit aller au bout de la Digue Est munis d'une bonne paire de jumelles.
!! Access to Quai Letourneur is closed to pedestrians !!
To reach the observation area, you must either use a boat or reach the end of the East Pier with good binoculars.
Questions pour valider cette earthcache :
D'après vos observations et à l'aide du desciptif,
Questions to validate this earthcache:
Based on your observations and using the description,
Joindre à votre log (PAS à vos réponses) une photo en N&B de vous, votre GPS, votre GC perso ou tout autre objet de geocaching soit au Stage 1 avec votre embarcation soit au Stage 2 avec la tour rouge.
Les simples photos de paysage ne permettent de valider cette condition de log. Pas plus qu'une photo devant la clôture.
Cette tâche est obligatoire et autorisée par les guidelines mises à jour en juin 2019.
Attach to your log (NOT to your answers) a B&W photo of you, your GPS, your personal GC or any other geocaching object either on Stage 1 with your boat or on Stage 2 with the red tower.
The simple landscape photos do not validate this log condition. No more than a photo in front of the fence.
This task is mandatory and authorized by the guidelines updated in June 2019.
Décrivez les formes d'érosion que vous pouvez observer dans CHAQUE zone 1 à 5.
(NB. La zone 4 correspond à la zone 1 mais plus à l'ouest)
Describe the forms of erosion that you can observe in EACH area 1 to 5.
(NB Zone 4 corresponds to zone 1 but more to the west)
D'après vous, quels agents ont conduit à l'érosion de CHAQUE zone ?
What agents do you think led to the erosion of EACH area?
Envoyez-moi vos propositions de réponses soit via mon profil, soit via la messagerie geocaching.com (Message Center) PUIS loguez cette cache "Found it", je vous contacterai en cas de problème.
Assurez vous de répondre à TOUTES les questions ! La condition principale pour loguer une Earthcache étant de répondre aux questions posées dans le descriptif, tout log "Found it" enregistré sans envoi préalable de vos propositions de réponses sera supprimé. Il en sera de même pour les logs enregistrés sans la photo requise.
Send me your proposals for answers either via my profile or via the geocaching.com messaging (Message Center) THEN log this cache "Found it", I will contact you in case of problem.
Make sure to answer ALL questions ! The main condition to log an Earthcache is to answer the questions asked in the description, any log "Found it" registered without prior submission of your proposals of answers will be deleted. It will be the same for logs saved without the required photo.