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Panóias [Vila Real]

A cache by Insano Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 02/16/2008
Difficulty:
1.5 out of 5
Terrain:
1.5 out of 5

Size: Size:   small (small)

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Geocache Description:

A cache leva-te à origem das gentes de Vila Real. O container está no exterior do Santuário

The cache takes you to Vila Real's origins. The container is outside the Sanctuary.


 

O Santuário de Panóias (monumento durante muitos anos designado por Fragas de Panóias) foi construído entre os finais do século II e os inícios do século III d. C. É constituído por um recinto onde se encontram três (entre outras) grandes fragas nas quais foram talhadas várias cavidades, de diversos tamanhos, bem como escadas de acesso. Numa das rochas foram também gravadas inscrições. Esta rocha, que denominamos de n.º 1, situada na entrada do recinto, possui as inscrições conhecidas, e que chegaram até nós, embora uma delas, ainda conhecida no século passado, tenha sido entretanto destruída.

Existem três inscrições em latim e uma em grego, e nelas estão as instruções dos rituais celebrados em Panóias, a identificação dos deuses e a do dedicante.

A inscrição desaparecida, também em latim, reconstituída a partir de leituras e registos anteriores, pode traduzir-se da seguinte maneira:

“Aos Deuses e Deusas deste recinto sagrado. As vítimas sacrificam-se, matam-se neste lugar. As vísceras queimam-se nas cavidades quadradas em frente. O sangue verte-se aqui ao lado para as pequenas cavidades. Estabeleceu Gaius C. Calpurnius Rufinus, membro da ordem senatorial.”

O senador consagrou o recinto sagrado à divindade principal dos deuses do Inferno, o Altíssimo Serápis, incluindo uma gastra e mistérios. Gastra, uma cavidade redonda, encontra-se imediatamente atrás da inscrição. A sua função no ritual seria o de assar a carne da vítima, que era consumida no local, em frente ao nome da divindade. A inscrição n.º 5 indica o acto final:
“Aos deuses, G. C. Calpurnius Rufinus, claríssimo, com este (templo) oferece também uma cavidade para se proceder à mistura.”

Neste local, o iniciado purificava-se do sangue, gordura e azeite com que se tinha sujado.

Esta interpretação sobre Panóias é de Geza Alföldy. Com base nos seus estudos, podemos hoje dizer que tivemos no local um ritual de iniciação com uma ordem e um itinerário muito precisos – a matança das vítimas, o sacrifício do sangue, a incineração das vítimas, o consumo da carne, a revelação do nome da autoridade máxima dos infernos, e por fim a purificação.

Na rocha n.º 2 do recinto a iniciação repetia-se num grau mais elevado. Na rocha mais elevada, n.º 3, e onde também haveria um pequeno templo, teria lugar o acto principal da iniciação – a morte ritual, o enterro e a ressurreição.

Hoje em qualquer das três rochas temos vestígios dos pequenos templos que eram parte integrante do recinto. Restam também as diferentes cavidades rectangulares que serviam para queimar as vísceras, uma cavidade redonda – gastra, para assar a carne, e ainda uma outra onde se procedia à limpeza do sangue, gordura e azeite. Outras cavidades estavam relacionadas com os pequenos templos existentes, e destinar-se-iam a guardar os instrumentos sagrados usados nos rituais.

Existem portanto em Panóias testemunhos de um rito de iniciação dos mistérios das divindades infernais. As prescrições identificam-se como partes de uma lei sagrada, mas aplicadas a um local concreto e preciso. A escolha deste local não foi por isso feita ao acaso, mas sim fruto de critérios específicos e previamente estabelecidos. A topografia do local desempenhou aqui um importante papel.

C. G. Calpurnius Rufinus, senador, que introduziu este culto em Panóias, onde já haveria um culto indígena, deve ter sido um alto funcionário do governo provincial romano. A sua língua original foi o grego, mas na inscrição o uso da palavra “mystaria” em vez de “mysteria” demonstra o uso de um dialecto dórico ou pseudo-dórico. Os dados sobre a sua origem permitem supor com grande probabilidade que seja Perge de Panfilia, cidade de tradição dórica e um dos centros do culto de Serápis, e situada na Ásia Menor.

 

The Sanctuary of Panóias (for many years known as the Fragas de Panóias or “Panóias Rocks”) was constructed between the end of the 2nd and the early 3rd century. The sanctuary is formed by three large rocks (among others) which have had steps and various sized cavities dug out of them. On one of the rocks, located near the sanctuary’s entrance, which we shall call n. º 1, there are inscriptions although one of them, still legible in the last century, has been destroyed.

There are three inscriptions in Latin and one in Greek, giving instructions for the rituals celebrated in Panóias, for the identification of the Gods and the dedicant.

The destroyed inscription, also in Latin, has been reconstructed from previous readings and records, and can be translated as follows:

“To the Gods and Goddesses of this sanctuary. The victims to be sacrificed are to be killed in this place. The entrails are to be burnt in the square cavities in front. The blood is to be poured here into the small cavities. In the name of Gaius C. Calpurnius Rufinus, member of the senatorial order.”

 

Inscription n. º 2 is to be found around 6/7 metres to the east, to the right of the path where the visitor enters the sacred area. The text would have faced rock n. º 1. The victims were killed there, and their blood poured into the small cavities. Their entrails were then burnt at the front, in other words, in the square cavities mentioned.

Just before going up the steps leading to the rock n. º 1 we find, to the left, inscription n. º 2:

“G. C. Calpurinius Rufinus consecrated within the temple (the temple intended to be the sanctuary), an aedes, a sanctuary, dedicated to the Severe Gods.”

There are still traces of one of the sanctuary’s small temples which was the setting for the revelation that the gods of the temple were the Severe Gods. The rock’s surface has a number of cavities and the instruction given by the first text (destroyed) mentions these rectangular cavities where the entrails were burnt. The steps then lead to the other side of the rock, where we find inscription n. º 3:

“To the Gods and Goddesses and all the divinities of the Lapitae, Gaius C. Calpurnius Rufinus, member of the senatorial order, consecrated forever with this sanctuary a cavity, in which the victims shall be burnt according to the rite.”

This confirms that the cavity mentioned in the inscription was previously used for the incineration of entrails. This inscription adds that the sanctuary was dedicated not only to the above-mentioned gods but also to the gods of the Lapitae, in other words, to the gods of the region’s indigenous community. We now move on to inscription n 4 (in Greek):

“To Serapis Most High, together with Destiny and the Mysteries, G. C. Calpurnius Rufinus, the most enlightened.”

 

The senator consecrated the sanctuary to the main divinity of the gods of the Underworld, Serapis the Most High, including gastra and mysteries. Gastra, a round cavity, is immediately behind the inscription. Its function in the ritual was to cook the victim’s flesh that would be consumed at the spot, before the name of the divinity. Inscription n. º 5 indicates the final act:

“To the gods, G. C. Calpurnius Rufinus, the most enlightened, with this (temple) also offers a cavity for carrying out the mixing.”

In this place, the initiated was cleansed of the blood, fat and olive oil with which he had been covered.

This is Géza Alföldy’s interpretation of Panóias. Using his work, today we can say that here we had an initiation ritual with a precise order and itinerary – the killing of the victims, the blood sacrifice, the burning of the victims, the consumption of the meat, the revelation of the name of the maximum authority of the underworld, and finally the purification.

In rock n 2, the initiation was repeated on a higher step. In the highest rock, n. º 3, and where there was a small temple, the main part of the initiation would take place – the death ritual, the burial and the resurrection.

Today, in all three rocks, we can find traces of the small temples that were an integral part of the sanctuary. There are also different rectangular cavities that were used to burn the entrails, a round-gastra cavity, to cook the meat and another for washing away the blood, fat and olive oil. Other cavities were linked to the small temples, and used to store the sacred instruments used in the rituals.

This is evidence that Panóias had an initiation ritual into the mysteries of the infernal divinities. The prescriptions are identified as parts of a sacred law, but applied to a concrete and precise place. The choise of this location was not by chance but as a result of specific and previously established criteria. The topography of the place had an important role to play.

C. G. Calpurnius Rufinus, the senator who introduced this cult in Panóias, where there was already an indigenous one, must have been a highly placed official in the provincial Roman government. His native language was Greek, but the use of “mystaria” instead of “”mysteria” in the inscription is evidence of a Doric or pseudo-Doric dialect. As far as we know, he was from Perge of Pamphylia, a town in Asia Minor, with a Doric tradition and a center of the cult of Serapis.

Additional Hints (Decrypt)

Gryun.

Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)



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