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A question of quartz -Carolus Linnaeus magic runes

A cache by Hallén Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 03/31/2010
Difficulty:
2.5 out of 5
Terrain:
2 out of 5

Size: Size: not chosen (not chosen)

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Geocache Description:


You can log this cache as found, but at the same time you have to send me an e-mail and answer the questions on this cache-page. I will send you a replay.

Du får lov att logga hittad direkt på denna earth cache, men samtidigt måste du skicka mig e-post med de rätta svaren. Jag skickar dig ett svar inom några dagar.

Summer, sun and holidays. I do not always read mail as quickly as normal. Therefore, you are welcome to log the cache as found and then submit your answers by e-mail and upload an image if you so wish. If I need a clarification, I hear of me to you.

In the year 1746 Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) visited this place. He was told by the local farmers that on this mountain there were writing in an unknown alphabet. Linné did know how to read runes but he could not read this writing. It’s all a creation by nature, but looks human made, so it’s no wonder that the famous Linné was unable to read the “runes”. The local population in the 18th century said that the place of the writing was once used to (black?) magic ceremonies!

In the year 1790 this drawing was made of the “runes” by C.G.G. Hilfeling. He also believed that it was a human creation


How was the “magic runes” created?

The bedrock on this location is made up of different kinds of gneiss and some quartz. The quartz is much harder than the gneiss.


Erosion over thousands of years made the quartz exposed.


When the thick inland ice covered the country, the quartz was broken out of the bedrock and left holes. On this location the holes happened to form holes in form of “runes”. It was this natural process that fooled Carolus Linnaeus!


Today the “runes” looks like this:


To claim this earth cache you have to answer the following questions:

Du måste svara på följande frågor för att kunna logga denna earth cache:

1. Quartz is widely distributed mineral of many varieties that consists primarily of - what?

2. Quartz has a great economic importance. Can you give me some exampel of what use we have of quartz?

3. Quarts is the second most aboundant mineral in the Eart's crust, but wich mineral is the most aboundant?

4. How many ”runes” can you discover today?

Optional

Take a photo of yourself or one of the "runes".

Try to find and take a photo of quartz around the location of the “runes”.

1. Vilken sammansättning har vanligtvis kvarts?

2. Kvarts är användbart! Kan du ge något eller några exempel på vad man kan använda kvart till?

3. Kvarts är den näst vanligaste miniralen i jordskorpan, men vilken är den vanligaste?

4. Hur många runor hittar du på hällen idag?

Frivilligt

Ta ett foto av dig själv eller någon av "runorna" på platsen

Försök hitta och fotografera kvarts i berget kring "runhällen"


Facts about quartz

Quartz has attracted attention from the earliest times; water-clear crystals were known to the ancient Greeks as krystallos—hence the name crystal, or more commonly rock crystal, applied to this variety. The name quartz is an old German word of uncertain origin first used by Georgius Agricola in 1530.

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. It occurs in nearly all acid igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. It is an essential mineral in such silica-rich felsic rocks as granites, granodiorites, and rhyolites. It is highly resistant to weathering and tends to concentrate in sandstones and other detrital rocks. Secondary quartz serves as a cement in sedimentary rocks of this kind, forming overgrowths on detrital grains. Microcrystalline varieties of silica known as chert, flint, agate, and jasper consist of a fine network of quartz. Metamorphism of quartz-bearing igneous and sedimentary rocks typically increases the amount of quartz and its grain size.

Quartz exists in two forms: (1) alpha-, or low, quartz, which is stable up to 573° C (1,063° F), and (2) beta-, or high, quartz, stable above 573° C. The two are closely related, with only small movements of their constituent atoms during the alpha-beta transition. The structure of beta-quartz is hexagonal, with either a left- or right-handed symmetry group equally populated in crystals. The structure of alpha-quartz is trigonal, again with either a right- or left-handed symmetry group. At the transition temperature the tetrahedral framework of beta-quartz twists, resulting in the symmetry of alpha-quartz; atoms move from special space group positions to more general positions. At temperatures above 867° C (1,593° F), beta-quartz changes into tridymite, but the transformation is very slow because bond breaking takes place to form a more open structure. At very high pressures alpha-quartz transforms into coesite and, at still higher pressures, stishovite. Such phases have been observed in impact craters.

Quartz is piezoelectric: a crystal develops positive and negative charges on alternate prism edges when it is subjected to pressure or tension. The charges are proportional to the change in pressure. Because of its piezoelectric property, a quartz plate can be used as a pressure gauge, as in depth-sounding apparatus.

Just as compression and tension produce opposite charges, the converse effect is that alternating opposite charges will cause alternating expansion and contraction. A section cut from a quartz crystal with definite orientation and dimensions has a natural frequency of this expansion and contraction (i.e., vibration) that is very high, measured in millions of vibrations per second.

Quartz. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 20, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com.ezproxy.ub.gu.se/eb/article-9062182

Fakta om kvarts

Kvarts (ty. Quarz, ett ord av omdiskuterat ursprung, möjligen till ty. dial. Querk 'dvärg'; jfr kobolt), Det förekommer i två modifikationer: lågkvarts och högkvarts. Lågkvarts är stabil vid temperaturer under 573 °C. Stabilitetsområdet för högkvarts är mellan 573 och 867 °C, varför detta mineral normalt inte förekommer inom den övre jordskorpan. Lågkvarts har starka piezo- och pyroelektriska egenskaper samt är optiskt aktiv (enantiomeri). Kvarts är polymorf med tridymit, cristobalit, coesit och stishovit. Jfr kiseldioxid.

Kvarts är den kontinentala jordskorpans näst vanligaste mineral (11 volymprocent). Det förekommer såväl i sura och intermediära magmatiska bergarter som i impregnationer och sprickfyllnader i jordskorpan. Då kvarts är stabil under låg- till högmetamorfa förhållanden förekommer mineralet såväl i fylliter, skiffrar och gnejser som i granuliter. Som vittringsrest finner man kvarts anrikad i lösa sediment, t.ex. kvartssand, och i sedimentära bergarter, t.ex. sandsten.

Inom Sverige bryts kvarts i Näshult sydöst om Tranemo (Västra Götalands län) och på några ställen i Dalsland.

2010-03-20 Nationalencyklopedin

http://www.ne.se.ezproxy.ub.gu.se/lang/kvart

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