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Mount Emei (3099m) is one of the Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains of China, and is traditionally regarded as the bodhimanda, or place of enlightenment, of the bodhisattva Samantabhadra. This is the location of the first Buddhist temple built in China in the 1st century. The site has seventy-six Buddhist monasteries of the Ming and Qing period, most of them located near the mountain top. The monasteries demonstrate a flexible architectural style that adapts to the landscape.
Great spectacles of Mount Emei include the sunrise and Clouds Sea seen from the Golden Summit of the mountain. Difference between peak and plains bellow is incredible 2600 meters, that rise a lot of question about geology of this area.
The late Sinian to early Ordovician (500 million years ago) this area was under the sea. The sediment formed a nearly 1000 m thick carbonate-based dolomite, that is present in Line-Sky, Daping, Hong Chunping and other places. During this period, a large number of low vegetation and animals began the birth of a single cell, and now on the rock near Hong Chunping can be clearly seen the fossilized remains of algae. Later, the crust continues to decline, and the sedimentary formation of sandstone, shale and dolomite about 1000 meters thick were formed. From Sianfong Temple to Xixiang Chi Temple rock formation contains abundant fossils document, trilobites and other fossils.
Early Permian period (about 270 million years ago) Emei Mountain area become again under sea. Sediment layer of carbonate rock with thickness of 400 ~ 500 meters was formed. It is in the Emeishan cliff, Ling Tung and Lei Dongping cliff with preserved corals, brachiopods and winding branches fossil.
Next strong Variscan movement led the area into the fire, which occurred in the mantle base shaking out of the magmatic eruption, covered about 50 million square kilometers, formed after cooling to 400 meters thick basalt, the famous Emei Mountain basalt. Present mainly in the Golden Summit, Wanfo Ding, Buddhas top and Qingyin Pavilion and so on. (by other theories that mass extinctions were caused by meteor or comet impact events).
From the late Permian (250 milion years ago) to early Triassic (180 milion years ago) the sea apperead once again and made sedimentary formation about 1500 meters thick - pebbly sandstone, lithic sandstone, mudstone and so on. At present, the Longmen rock area remains of this period.
Between the late Eocene (about 50 million years ago), the Indian Plate and the Euroasian plate collide, leading to the world's highest mountain Himalayan fold rise. Mount Emei are also exposed to the main east-west compressive stress squeeze. Mountain Emeishan large fault along the fracture surface uplift rapidly, reached an altitude of 2000 meters high. Since that the peak is still slowly increasing, currently about 2 mm per year. Sedimentary rocks on the top of Mount Emei suffer from weathering erosion and other factors of erosion (glaciers, water, air). In the end Emeishan uplift was eroded to a basalt rock, that is very hard and its weathering is very slow.
To claim this earthcache you have to go to the Golden peak and descent to one of view posts. You can look 2600m down to the plains, but notice the rock around too.
Please send me via email the answers to the following questions
1) What rock you can see around?
2) What type is this rock (sediment, igneous or methamorphic)
If you look back at the Golden summit, you will see in front of you outcrop with two Chinese characters.
3) Estimate the height of the outcrop.
Below it you can see small columns of this rock.
4) What is the diameter of this columns? What is its origin?
(No hints available.)