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Betalov spodmol

A cache by DavorH & Family Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 1/2/2012
Difficulty:
1.5 out of 5
Terrain:
2 out of 5

Size: Size: small (small)

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Geocache Description:

[SI] Betalov spodmol je paleolitsko jamsko najdišce z ostanki orodij in kosti plena tedanjih lovcev. Vhod je nastal z udorom stropa 174 m dolge jame, ki jo je izdolbla ponikalnica iz Pivške kotline.

[EN] Betalov Spodmol is a multiperiod prehistoric site near Postojna in southwest Slovenia with remains of tools and bones of prey. Entrance to spodmol was created when the ceiling of a 174 m long cave caved in.




Vhod v Betalov spodmol / Entrance to Betalov spodmol

Opis

Paleolitsko (starokamenodobno) in paleontološko jamsko najdišce Betalov spodmol je na obrobju Pivške kotline, tik nad cesto Postojna–Predjama. Odkril ga je italijanski geolog in speleolog Franco Anelli, ki je v njem izkopaval v letih pred 2. svetovno vojno. V letih1947–1953 je Anellijevo delo sistematicno nadaljeval utemeljitelj slovenske paleolitske arheologije Srecko Brodar.

Betalov spodmol spada med najpomembnejša paleolitska najdišca v Sloveniji. V njem so bile odkrite najdbe (kamnita orodja, kurišca in ostanki lovskega plena) iz razlicnih obdobij paleolitika. Obiskovan je bil tudi v mezolitiku (srednji kameni dobi). Iz tega obdobja je prevrtan jelenji zob, ki je služil kot obesek.

Brodar je v odkopanih plasteh locil 8 kulturnih horizontov (nivojev z vecjo koncentracijo arheoloških najdb). Najgloblji horizont A naj bi segal še v cas riške poledenitve. Kamnita orodja iz tega horizonta, stara okrog 300.000 let, predstavljajo skupaj s kamnitimi orodji iz Jame v Lozi in jame Risovec (ki sta prav tako v Pivški kotlini) najstarejše dokaze o prisotnosti cloveka na Slovenskem. Srednjemu paleolitiku (moustérienu) pripadajo horizonti B, C, D in E. Horizont B je nastal v medledeni dobi med rissom in würmom, na kar kažejo najdbe toploljubne favne, kot sta kirhberški nosorog (Dicerorhinus kirchbergensis) in pelod listavcev. Po velikem številu kamnitih orodij še zlasti izstopa horizont D. Horizonta F in G že pripadata mlajšemu paleolitiku, in sicer kulturno-tehnološki stopnji gravettien. Horizont H pripada holocenu oz. arheološkemu obdobju mezolitik.

Betalov spodmol je bil v srednjem paleolitiku zaradi ojezerjene Pivške kotline, ki je nudila bogate vire hrane, priljubljena postojanka neandertalcev, ki so se preživljali z lovom in nabiralništvom. V strugah bližnjih vodotokov so rožencevi prodniki, ki so jih neandertalci nabirali za izdelavo kamnitih orodij.

Odkriti so bili ostanki razlicnih vrst živali. Najvec kosti pripada jamskemu medvedu (Ursus spelaeus). V najglobljih plasteh so bili odkriti ostanki deningerjevega medveda (Ursus deningeri), predhodnika jamskega medveda. Med izumrlimi vrstami so našli še jamsko hijeno (Crocuta spelaea), orjaškega jelena (Megaceros giganteus) in že omenjenga kirhberškega nosoroga.

Najdbe iz Betalovega spodmola hranita Narodni muzej Slovenije in Notranjski muzej Postojna.

Viri:

http://www.dedi.si/dediscina/273-betalov-spodmol

http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betalov_spodmol

Dostop

Dostop do zaklada je enostaven. Peljemo se iz Postojne v smeri Predjamskega gradu in približno 2 km iz Postojne je na desni strani dobro vidna lesena tabla, ki kaže na Betalov spodmol. Nekaj metrov naprej je na levi strani ceste manjše parkirišce, na katerem je prostora za en avtomobil (tocka PARK). Od parkirišca do spodmola je nekaj metrov potrebno hoditi ob cesti in jo potem preckati. Kljub temu, da cesta ni pretirano prometna, je seveda pazljivost nujna. Lokacija je dostopna skozi celo leto, z možno izjemo vecjega snega, ko je potrebno gaziti sneg, poledenelost pa tudi povecuje nevarnost tega pocetja.

Zaklad

Zaklad je 180 ml Lock & Lock škatla, v njem je poleg knjižice vpisov, ki naj ostane v škatlici, še nekaj manjših stvari za izmenjavo. Svincnik prinesite s seboj. Za najdbo zaklada podnevi svetilka ni potrebna, vendar priporocamo, da jo vzamete s seboj, da si boste lahko ogledali tudi notranjost jame. Svetujemo tudi dobro obutev. Satelitski sprejem na lokaciji ni najboljši, naj vam bo v pomoc namig ali spoiler fotografija. Nevarnost za srecanje z bunkeljni ni prav velika, kljub temu pa je previdnost na mestu. Poskrbite tudi, da boste zaklad dobro skrili nazaj. Veliko srece in užitkov pri raziskovanju vam želimo!


Description

Paleolithic (from Old Stone Age) and paleontological cave site Betalov spodmol is on the outskirts of the Pivka basin, just above the road Postojna-Predjama. It was discovered by Italian geologist and speleologists Franco Anelli, who was excavating there in the years before World War II. In years 1947-1953 Anelli's work was systematically continued by the founder of  Slovenian Paleolithic archeology Srecko Brodar.

Betalov spodmol is one of the most important Paleolithic sites in Slovenia. Several finds were discovered there (stone tools, fire places and the remains of hunting prey) from different periods of the Paleolithic. It was visited also in the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). From this period comes perforated deer tooth, which served as a pendant.

Brodar distinguished 8 cultural horizons in the excavation layers (levels with increasing concentration of archaeological finds). The deepest horizon supposedly reached to the time of Riga glaciations. Stone tools from this horizon, around 300,000 years old, represent together with stone tools from the caves and caverns in Risovec and Loza (which are also in Pivka basin), the oldest evidence of human presence in what is now Slovenia. Horizons B, C, D and E belong to Middle Paleolithic. Due to a large number of stone tools horizon D is particularly interesting. Horizons F and G belong to the younger Paleolithic, whereas horizon H belongs to the Holocene, i.e. archaeological period of Mesolithic.

Because the Pivka basin was filled with water in the Middle Paleolithic and provided abundant food resources, Betalov spodmol was popular with Neanderthals, who made their living by hunting and gathering fruits. Nearby water streams provided Neanderthals with stones from which they made stone tools.

Residues were detected of the different species. Most bones belong to cave bear (Ursus spelaeus). In the deepest layers of residues the remains of Deninger bear were detected (Ursus deningeri), the predecessor of the cave bear. Among the extinct species found in the cave were also cave hyena (Crocuta spelaea), giant deer (Megaceros giganteus) and Kirchberg rhino (Dicerorhinus kirchbergensis).

Findings from Betalov spodmol are kept in the National Museum of Slovenia and Notranjski Museum in Postojna.

Sources:

http://www.dedi.si/dediscina/273-betalov-spodmol

http://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betalov_spodmol

Access

Access to the cache is easy. We drive in the direction from Postojna to Predjama Castle and approximately 2 km from Postojna on the right side of the road we can clearly see a wooden sign that points to Betalov spodmol. A few meters ahead on the left side of the road is a small parking lot, with space for one car (waypoint PARK). From the parking to spodmol we have to walk a few meters along the road and then cross it. Despite the fact that road is not very busy caution is still needed. The location is accessible throughout the year, with the possible exception of deep snow.

Cache

The cache is a 180 ml Lock & Lock box, in which you can find a logbook (which must remain in a box) and a few minor things to trade. Bring your own pencil. During the day you don’t need a flashlight to find the cache, but we recommend that you take it with you so that you can also check the interior of the cave. We recommend good hiking shoes. Satellite reception on site is not the best so help yourself with a hint or even spoiler photo. Risk of meeting muggles is not very high, but still caution is advisable. Also make sure that you will hide the cache well after you are finished. We wish you good luck and a lot of pleasure in exploring the site!

 

 

 

Additional Hints (Decrypt)

[SI] Tyrw i wnzb, qir znwuav enmcbxv i fgrav an qrfav, gvx anq mrzywb.

[EN] Ybbx vagb gur pnir, gjb fznyy penpxf va gur ebpx jnyy ba gur evtug, whfg nobir gur tebhaq.

Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)



 

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