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Divaška jama / Divaca Cave

A cache by DavorH & Family Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 01/06/2012
Difficulty:
2 out of 5
Terrain:
1.5 out of 5

Size: Size: not chosen (not chosen)

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Geocache Description:

Reka Reka je v milijonih let ustvarila slikovit in še vedno ne v celoti raziskan podzemni svet, ki krasi okolico Divace. Divaška jama, nekoliko manj obiskana, a nic manj impozantna jama, je tudi njeno delo.

River Reka has created picturesque and still not fully explored underworld. Divaca Cave is one of its creations.




Go To English Text

Kazalo

*         Uvod

*         Obmocje zgornjega Krasa

*         Geologija in nastanek jame

*         Opis jame

*         EarthCache

*         Viri

Skok na konec teksta


Uvod

Divaška jama je nekoliko manj znana, a zato nic manj impozantna podzemna kraška jama v bližini Divace. Tudi njo je, podobno kot Škocjanske jame in še nekaj drugih, ustvarila skozi milijone let reka Reka, ki pa zdaj tece drugje in je zato Divaška jama suha jama.

Odkril jo je leta 1884 Gregor Žiberna, imenovan Tentava. Za turisticni obisk so jo uredili že tri leta za tem. Tentava se je pred tem prvi spustil v številne jame, med njimi tudi v 180 m globoko vhodno brezno Kacne Jame, ki leži nedalec stran od Divaške jame in vodi do podzemnega toka Reke. S tem se je proslavil kot veliki raziskovalec kraškega podzemlja ob koncu 19. stoletja.

Jama je eden najstarejših ohranjenih rovov reke Reke, ki danes nedalec stran ponika v znamenite Škocjanske jame. Ogled je zanimiv, saj je jama z množico udornih dolin in brezen v okolici Divace del nekdaj aktivnega jamskega sistema, ki ga je na tem obmocju oblikovala Reka. Je izvrstna priložnost za spoznavanje in razumevanje razvoja kraških pojavov na Divaškem Krasu. Skozi dolgo geološko zgodovino se je skoraj v celotnem rovu odložilo veliko sige, ki z zanimivimi tvorbami krasi njeno notranjost. Že v preteklosti so jamo obiskovale znane osebnosti. Med njimi velja izpostaviti prestolonaslednika princa Rudolfa, po katerem se je nekaj casa tudi imenovala Rudolfova jama (Rudolfsgrotte), in slovitega psihoanalitika Sigmunda Freuda.

Obmocje zgornjega Krasa


Geološka zgradba Maticnega krasa


Generalizirana geološka karta Krasa (Cerkvenik, 2005)

Celotni Maticni Kras, apnencasto podolje med Tržaškim zalivom in Vipavsko dolino, je razgibana enota. Eocenski fliš, morski sediment, ki je na debelo prekrival to podrocje, se je dvignil nad morsko gladino in nato vzdrževal površinsko recno mrežo. Ob dvigovanju, gubanju in nato prelamljanju plasti je bila antiklinalna guba Krasa razgaljena in erodirana do starejših apnencev, vecinoma kredne starosti, kjer so se zaceli kraški procesi. Za Zgornji Kras je znacilno stikanje med apnenci in fliši, tako da so apnenci spodaj, fliš pa je naložen na njih. Vzhodno od Zgornjega Krasa so flišni Brkini, kjer je recna mreža površinska, celotna recna mreža pa se steka vecinoma na zahod, kjer se ponori Reke koncajo v Škocjanskem jamskem spletu, in na jug z mnogimi krajšimi vodotoki, ki se koncajo v ponorih v tako imenovanih slepih dolinah Matarskega podolja.


Morfološke enote Krasa in okolice (Gams, 2003)

Ponori primorske Reke so v geološki zgodovini ustvarili velikanski sistem podzemeljskih rovov in dvoran, v razlicnih višinah in v razlicnih smereh proti zahodu, severozahodu in jugozahodu. Erozijsko širjenje in poglabljanje ter znižanje korozijskega površja je ustvarjalo notranje podore, ožine in udorne vrtace s površja, zato je Reka stalno spreminjala svoj tok v globini, ceprav je vsaj v prvih desetih kilometrih sklenjen. Ob poplavah voda Reke zapolni višje rove. Škocjanske jame in Kacna jama sta del tega sistema, del starega višjega in zdaj mrtvega sistema pa je tudi Divaška jama.  


Hidrogeološka karta Krasa (Mihevc, 2004)

Geologija in nastanek jame

Širše obmocje Divaške jame tvorijo mikritni in sparitni kredni apnenci turonijske starosti, ki  sestavljajo veliko geološko gubo tako imenovanega tržaško-komenskega antiklinorija. Skladi upadajo za 20 stopinj proti jugu in jugozahodu. Skladi  so prelomljeni, vendar le malo zdrobljeni.

Podzemlje Divaške jame je v skladovitih apnencih, ki so v prvi polovici jame nagnjeni za 15-20 stopinj proti jugozahodu, v drugi polovici pa za prav toliko proti jugu. Ker skalni profili jame niso nikjer v celoti razgaljeni, je težavno spoznati tudi razsežnosti in oblike skalne izvotlitve. Gre za enotni rov, ceprav  skorajda popolnoma preoblikovan. Zelo verjetno je sedanji rov le vrh velikega podzemeljskega kanjona. Lepo so razvidne velike zapolnitve prostorov z ilovico, podori in sigami skorajda do vrha, nato pa je z mocnim izpiranjem z meteorskimi vodami prišlo do ponovne izvotljenosti podzemeljskega rova med vhodom 426 m do 350 m nadmorske višine z dolžino kakšnih 700 m. V zadnji fazi se je jama ponovno mocno zasigala z mnogimi sigastimi oblikami (stalagmiti, stalaktiti, stebri, zavese, baldahini itd.), tako da težko najdemo živo skalo.

Opis jame


Nacrt jame

Divaška jama ima dva vzporedna navpicna vhoda na nadmorski višini 427 m. Zdajšnji glavni je vhod skozi udorno vrtaco, kjer je speljana pot, ter se na dnu zoži (tu je bil skopan umetni prehod že leta 1886) in pride po podornem nasipu v Vhodno dvorano. Ob robu podorne vrtace pa se v Vhodno dvorano navpicno spusti v 25 m globoko brezno, prva leta edini prehod v jamo, ki so ga premošcali z vrvnimi in nato z lesenimi lestvami.

V vhodnem prostoru,  imenovanem Plesna dvorana (Vhodna dvorana), kamor še sega dnevna svetloba,  so  tla umetno poravnana. Od tu  vodi  17 m širok in 15 m visok podzemeljski rov in jamska pot pod podrtim stalagmitom. Na JZ skalni steni se vzpenjajo kope sige in debeli stalagmiti, od katerih sta dva v podnožju prelomljena in nagnjena. Dno vhodnega rova se spušca do najnižjega dela prostora, kjer se pozimi zadržuje hladen zrak, poleti pa se zrak dnevno ohlaja zaradi nocnih temperatur. Zaradi tega je siga v rovu posebne sive barve in oblike.  Po 80 m se vhodni rov konca,  dvigne in zoži do stranske niše, imenovane Samotarjeva molilnica.

Jamska pot pelje cez Prehod Šipka (Obhod) v Šipka sotesko, 20 m dolg odsek jame, posut z množico velikih stalagmitov, kjer se mešata vhodni in jamski zrak. Šipka (robidovje) je staro ime za ta del jame zaradi koralastih izrastkov po stenah in kapnikih.

Rov se rahlo spusti in tu ni vec  vplivov z vhoda in pozimi nas objame toplejši in vedno vlažen zrak. Tla rova, polnega kop, sigovih cipres in svec, se znižajo, rov pa se poveca in razširi v 40 m dolgo Dvorano kralja Matjaža (Rešaverjevo dvorano), z  markantnimi kapniškimi oblikami in podrtim mogocnim stalagmitom Kralj Matjaž, po Gospodaricu imenovanem Harambaša, nad njim pa stoji stalagmit Kralj Samo (nekaj casa znan tudi kot Tegethoffov spomenik). Na steni je lep bel sigast Slap Savice. Na dnu dvorane je udor Pekel, po Gospodaricu Hram; od tu vodi odcep v stranski rov v Malo jamo, po Žiberni imenovan Muzej umetnosti.

Glavni rov se nato zožuje cez Sotesko slapov (Hodnik), dolžine 30 m, kjer se zoži na 5m širine, z znacilnimi slapovi sige na stranskih stenah. Rov se kmalu razširi in dvigne v 70 m dolgo Kalvarijo ( po Gospodaricu Pretnerjevo dvorano), kjer je znacilno kapniško pobocje z gozdom stalagmitov in stebrov. Tu se jamska pot  razcepi - na levi strani Kalvarije poteka glavna pot ob vznožju pobocja, na desni strani pa se dvigne in spusti ter se spet združi z glavno levo potjo.

Turisticna jamska  pot  se nadaljuje na razgledni rob Belvedere, kjer se odpre pogled na Veliko dvorano, kot so jo imenovali Tentava in tovariši. Rov je  100m dolg, do 40 m širok in do 20m visok. Zdaj ga imenujemo Žibernova dvorana. Jamska pot se strmo serpentinasto spusti na dno dvorane, ki je tudi najnižja tocka jame, 72 m nižje in 500 m dalec od vhoda. Tu je prehod v 20 m globoko ožje brezno. Ob poti je zanimiv stalagmit Atilova pipa, kot ga je poimenoval Tentava. Jamska turisticna pot  se spet dvigne na Turški britof, kjer se na desno odcepi stranska pot v Biserno Vilenico in Zakladnico z mnogimi belo-rdecimi zavesami, helektitnimi izrastki in velikimi kristali. Glavna pot se v zgornjem delu dvorane spet razcepi. Na desni strani je stranski strmi kapniški rov, nekoc imenovan Štefanijin balkon, na levi strani pa lepo zasigan podor s kapniškimi skupinami Kronski gric in Spomenik princa Rudolfa. Jama se konca z dvignjenim kapniškim rovom, imenovanim Nebesa ali Paradižem in Nebeškimi orglami.

V dvorani kralja Matjaža, kjer je severni odcep v Malo jamo, ki jo je Tentava imenoval Muzej umetnosti,  je jamska pot prehodna samo z mostom cez prepad Pekel (po  Gospodaricu Hram), ki je do 10 m globok s 30 m dolgim rovom na dnu. Mala jama je dolga do 60 m, posejana  z mnogimi lepimi kapniškimi oblikami: stalagmiti Mumije, Cipresa in Kitajska vaza, s strani pa visi velik baldahin, s katerega raste stalaktit Slonov rilec.  Kapniški rov se konca z  udorom v sigini plošci, poimenovan  Katakombe.

Celotna dolžina Divaške jame je 700 m,  globina pa 95 m. V njej je speljanih 1500 m poti, za turisticne oglede pa je le poredko odprta. Za vec informacij o ogledu se velja obrniti na skrbnika, Jamarsko društvo Gregor Žiberna iz Divace.

EarthCache

Vhod v Divaško jamo je enostavno dostopen s ceste Divaca – Lokev na Krasu - Lipica, kjer nas po kilometru ali dveh izven Divace obcestna tabla usmeri desno. Nekaj deset metrov naprej je parkirišce (tocka PARK), do vhoda pa je še nekaj metrov hoje, ki nas spusti v kraško vrtaco, na dnu katere je vhod v jamo (tocka CAVE).

Za registracijo te EarthCache tocke morate odgovoriti na naslednja vprašanja:

1.       Ocenite dimenzije (globina in premer) vrtace, v kateri je vhod v jamo.

2.       Konec Divaške jame (Nebesa) sega skoraj do še ene kraške jame v bližini, le da je približno 50 m pod njo. Za katero jamo gre?

3.       Koliko stopnic je do železnih vrat, ki zapirajo vhod v jamo?

4.       Kot neobvezno nalogo pa naredite fotografijo vas ali vašega GPSja pri jami in jo pripnite vašemu vpisu.

Odgovore mi pošljite skozi GC profil. Potem lahko zabeležite vaš obisk, ne da bi cakali na posebno dovoljenje. Ce ste fotografirali, priložite zanimive fotografije.

Vpisi brez poslanih spremljajocih odgovorov, ali vpisi, ki vsebujejo odgovore na vprašanja, bodo izbrisani!

Skok na zacetek teksta

Skok na konec teksta


Table of Contents

*         Introduction

*         Upper Karst area

*         Geology and formation of the Cave

*         Description of the Cave

*         EarthCache

*         Sources

Go To Bottom


Introduction


Divaca cave is somewhat less known, but no less impressive underground Karst cave near Divaca. It was, like Škocjan caves and a few others, created over millions of years by the river Reka, which now runs elsewhere, making Divaca cave a dry cave.

Cave was discovered in 1884 by Gregor Žiberna, called Tentava. It was arranged for tourist visits three years after that. Tentava was the first to go into a number of caves before that, including the 180-meter deep entrance shaft of Kacna cave, which lies not far from Divaca cave, leading to an underground river Reka. These successes made him one of the greatest  explorers of  karst underground in the late 19 century.

The cave is one of the oldest surviving passages of the river Reka, which currently terminates near the famous Škocjan caves. Visiting Divaca cave makes an interesting tour, since together with numerous collapse valleys and shafts in the vicinity of Divaca it is a part of once active cave system, which was formed by river Reka. It is an excellent opportunity to learn and understand the development of karst phenomena in Divaca Karst. Through a long geological history, almost the entire tunnel became richly decorated with interesting calcite formations. Historically, many celebrities have visited this cave. Among them, we should mention Crown Prince Rudolf, after whom the cave was one time called Rudolph Cave (Rudolfsgrotte), and the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.

Upper Karst area


Karst geological structure


Generalized Geological Map of Karst (Cerkvenik, 2005)

Whole central Karst, limestone valley between the Gulf of Trieste and Vipava Valley, is a very diverse area. Eocene flysch, marine sediment, which was thickly covering this area, rose above the sea level and then maintain the surface river network. When lifting, corrugation, and then breaking of layers, Karst anticlinal fold was exposed and then eroded to the older limestone, mostly of Cretaceous age, where karst processes began. Characteristic for the upper Karst is juncture between the limestone and flysch, so that the limestone is on the bottom while flysch is loaded on it. East of the Upper Karst lay flysch Brkini, where the water network runs on the surface. Entire water network is channeled mainly to the west, where the river Reka sinks in Škocjan Caves, and to the south with many short streams that end up in the sinks of Matarska valley.


Morphological units of Karst and surroundings (Gams, 2003)

River Reka created in the geological history a huge underground system of tunnels and chambers in various heights and in different directions: towards the west, northwest and southwest. Erosion and reduction of surface materials caused surface cavings and sinkholes  which have been constantly changing flow of the river, although at least the first ten kilometers are uninterrupted. During floods river Reka still fills some of the higher galleries. Kacna Cave and Škocjan caves are part of this system, whereas the Divaca cave is higher and part of the old and now dead cave system.


Karst Hydrogeological map (Mihevc, 2004)

Geology and formation of the Cave

The wider area of Divaca cave consists of cretaceous limestone, which forms a geological fold. These limestone stratification decreases by 20 degrees to the south and southwest. They are broken, but only a little crushed.

Divaca cave underground lies in stratified limestone which in the first half is inclined 15-20 degrees to the southwest, in the second half by as much towards the south. Since the rock profiles are nowhere in the cave completely stripped down, it is difficult to know the dimensions and shape of rock hollowing. The cave is a single tunnel, although almost completely reshaped. It is likely just the tip of the large underground canyon. In the final stage the cave again became filled with many forms of calcite (stalagmites, stalactites, columns, curtains, canopies, etc.), which makes finding bedrock very difficult.

Description of the Cave


Cave plan

Divaca cave has two parallel vertical inputs at an altitude of 427 m. The current main entrance is through a karst sinkhole, where the path leads and narrows at the bottom (there was an artificial passage dug already in 1886) to eventually enter the Entrance Hall. By the edge of the sinkhole there’s a vertical 25 m deep shaft that leads directly to the Entrance Hall. In the first few years this was the only way to enter the cave, with ropes or wooden ladders.

In  the entrance room, called the Dance Hall (Entrance Hall), where there’s still daylight, floor was artificially leveled.  From here the path leads through 17 m wide and 15 m high underground tunnel, under a fallen stalagmite. On the SW rock wall there are piles of calcite and thick stalagmites, two of which are at the foot broken and skewed. The bottom of the input shaft descends to the lowest part of the area where in the winter cold air is trapped and in the summer air is cooled by the night temperatures. Because of this calcite formations have special gray color and shape. After 80 m, the input shaft ends, ascents and tightens into a side niche, called Samotarjeva Molilnica (Loner’s  Oratory).

Cave path then leads through the Šipka Pass (Bypass) into the Šipka gorge, 20 m long section of the cave, strewn with a multitude of large stalagmites, where the cave and outside air are mixing. Šipka (bramble) is an old name for this part of the cave because of coral-like growths on the walls and dripstones.

Passage then drops slightly and outside air can no longer be felt but instead there’s warmer and always moist cave air.  Soon passage widens to 40 m long Hall of King Matjaž (a.k.a. Rešaver Hall), with impressive dripstones and mighty fallen stalagmite named King Matjaž (Gospodaric called it Harambaša) and above it there’s stalagmite King Samo (also known for some time as a monument of Tegethoff). On the wall is a beautiful white Savica Waterfall. At the bottom of the hall there’s landslip Pekel (Hell) and from there tunnel branches to  Little cave, which Žiberna called Art Museum.

The main tunnel then narrows into the 30 m long Gorge of Waterfalls (Hallway), where it narrows to a width of 5m, with typical calcite waterfalls on the side walls. The tunnel will soon expand and rise into the 70 m long Calvary (Gospodaric called it Pretner Hall), which is characterized by slope with a forest of stalagmites and columns. Here are the cave path splits - on the left side of Calvary the principal route runs at the foot of the slope while on the right hand side it raises and drops again to join the main left path.

Tourist cave path continues to the edge of the Belvedere lookout, where the view opens to the Great Hall, as was dubbed by Tentava and comrades. The tunnel is 100m long, up to 40 m wide and up to 20m high. Nowadays it is called Žiberna Hall. Path then descends sharply to the bottom of the hall, which is also the lowest point of the cave, 72 m lower and 500 m far from the entrance. Here is a passage to the 20 m deep narrow pit. On the way there’s an interesting stalagmite that Tentava named Attila's pipe. Tourist trail rises again to the Turkish graveyard where on the right side road branches off to Pearl Vilenica and Treasury with many white-red curtains and large crystals. The main trail splits again in the upper part of the hall. On the right hand side there’s steep tunnel, once called Štefanija balcony, and on the left side a beautiful rockfall with stalactite groups, Crown Hill, and Crown Prince Rudolf Monument. The cave ends with a raised tunnel called Heaven or Paradise and with Heaven organ.

In the hall of King Matjaž with the branch to the Little cave, which was called by Tentava the Art Museum, the cave trail is only transitive over a bridge across the abyss of Hell which is up to 10 m deep with a 30 m long tunnel at the bottom. Little cave is 60 m long, planted with many beautiful calcite forms: Mummies stalagmites, Cypress and China vase, while on the side hangs a large canopy, from which the stalactite Elephant Trunk grows. Passage ends with a landslip, called the Catacombs.

The entire length of the Divaca cave is 700 m and it is 95 m deep. There are 1500 m of visitor’s route, but it is seldom open for visitors. For more information about visiting contact the administrator, the Speleological Society Gregor Žiberna in Divaca.

EarthCache

The entrance to the Divaca Cave is easily accessible from the road Divaca - Lokev na Krasu - Lipica, where after a kilometer or two outside Divaca a roadside sign will direct you to the right. Very soon you’ll arrive to the parking space (waypoint PARK). From there one has to walk for a few meters into the karst sinkhole at the bottom of which the entrance to the cave is (waypoint CAVE).

To register this EarthCache you must answer the following questions:

1.       Assess the dimensions (depth and diameter) of the sinkhole in which the entrance to the cave is.

2.       End of the Divaca Cave (Heaven = Nebesa) extends almost to another cave nearby, but is approximately 50 m below it. Which cave is this?

3.       How many steps are there on the staircase to the iron gate that closes the entrance to the cave? Count all steps not just the metal ones.

4.       Optionally, take a photo of yourself or your GPS and attach it to your log.

Send your answers through my GC profile. After that you can log your visit, don't wait for permission from me. If you took photos, attach them to your log.

Logs without the answers sent to me or logs containing the answers will be deleted!

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Viri / Sources:

*          Wikipedia

*          Jamarsko društvo Gregor Žiberna, Divaca

*          Rosana Cerkvenik, 2006. Speleološke znacilnosti krasa, Diplomsko delo

*          Gams, I., 2003. Kras v Sloveniji v prostoru in casu, Ljubljana, Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU

*          Mihevc, A., 2004. Iskanje podzemnega toka reke Reke. Delo. Znanost, (26.4.2004)


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