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Kricac/Shoutbox

A cache by pikacu Send Message to Owner Message this owner
Hidden : 04/26/2012
Difficulty:
4 out of 5
Terrain:
3 out of 5

Size: Size:   micro (micro)

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Geocache Description:

Radio Kričač - ilegalna radijska postaja v okupirani Ljubljani (slovenski opis)
Radio Shoutbox - an illegal radio station in occupied Ljubljana (English description)

Slovenski opis:

Radio Kričač je bila ilegalna radijska postaja Osvobodilne fronte, ki je od 17.11.1941 do 5.4.1942 oddajala iz kar 23 stanovanj po Ljubljani. Bila je edina ilegalna odporniška radijska postaja v zasedeni Evropi tistega časa - vse ostale so delovale na varnem iz Anglije ali Sovjetske zveze. Kljub naporom Italijanov je nikoli niso odkrili.

Radijski oddajnik je nekaj mesecev izdeloval Rado Luznar v okviru seminarja na elektrotehniški fakulteti. Delal je v strogi tajnosti, tako da nihče od kolegov ni vedel, kaj počne. Oddajnik je bil sestavljen iz treh delov, kasneje so mu dodali še akumulator. Po vsaki oddaji so ga razstavili in ga odnesli v dveh ali treh delih v različnih smereh na novo lokacijo.

Oddaje radia Kričač je pripravljalo uredništvo, v katerem so bili glavni urednik Prežihov Voranc (kultura, notranja in zunanja politika), Fran Albreht (novice in poročila s fronte), Rudi Kobilica, Miro Jeršič in Jože Dolenc (propaganda in frontna obvestila) ter Tone Vodnik. Oddajnik so prenašali in upravljali Vida Lasič, Drago Hartnar in Miloš Brelih, napovedovala pa sta Marjan Vesenjak in Milan Osredkar.

Že od vsega začetka so načrtovali, da bo Kričač oddajal redno, kakor vse resne radijske postaje. Ker je tako okupator že vnaprej vedel za čas oddaj, je bilo prikrivanje še toliko bolj zahtevno. Vsakič so oddajali iz drugega stanovanja oziroma hiše; znanih je 23 lokacij, iz katerih so oddajali. Pri tem lastniki, ki so ponudili prostor, večinoma sploh niso vedeli, da gre za radio Kričač - mislili so, da imajo aktivisti sestanek. Nekaj ur pred oddajo so na lokacijo prinesli oddajnik in ga sestavili, razpeli anteno (dolg kabel) in vse skupaj umerili. Po oddaji so morali v naglici vse skupaj razstaviti in se hitro porazgubiti po mestu, nekajkrat so se morali naslednji dan vrniti še po opremo.

Oddajali so trikrat na teden, in sicer v ponedeljek, sredo in soboto. V prvem obdobju se se oddaje začele ob 20h, pozneje pa ob 19:45. Redne oddaje so trajale do 15 minut. V zadnjem obdobju, ko so Italijani postali bolj izkušeni v iskanju, so jih začeli krajšati in zadnje so trajale 6 minut. Najdaljša oddaja - trajala je celo uro - je bila na kulturni praznik 8.2.1942 (oddajali so iz lokacije 22).

Začetek oddaje je označevalo tiktakanje ure in nagovor "Naš čas še prihaja!", ob kasnejših oddajah pa "Govori radio Osvobodilna fronta!". V začetnih oddajah so na začetku in koncu zavrteli tudi takratno slovensko himno "Naprej zastava slave", kasneje so jo zaradi krajšanja oddaj opustili.

Italijanom je bil Kričač ves čas trn v peti. Najprej so mislili, da deluje iz tujine, ko pa so se prepričali, da dejansko oddaja iz Ljubljane, so poskušali vse mogoče, da bi ga odkrili in uničili. Izvajali so številne racije po mestu, podaljševali policijsko uro, iskali postajo z vozili z goniometri. Po četrtih so izklapljali elektriko, da bi zožili področje iskanja, a ker je Kričač imel akumulator, oddaje nikoli niso prekinili. Kljub temu, da je po nekaj mesecih oddajnik vsakič iskalo par tisoč vojakov in 20 vozil z goniometri, ga niso mogli najti, zato so se zatekli k skrajnemu ukrepu: 26.3.1942 so izdali ukaz za zaseg vseh radijskih sprejemnikov v Ljubljani!!! (Ljudje so morali svoje sprejemnike odnesti v Cukrarno in dobili so potrdilo o zasegu. Aktivisti OF pa so iz pokvarjenih delov sestavljali lažne sprejemnike, ki so jih potem ljudje predali okupatorju, svoje delujoče pa skrili).

Ker po zasegu sprejemnikov ljudje niso mogli več spremljati oddaj, so z oddajanjem prenehali. Zadnja oddaja radia Kričač je bila v nedeljo 5.4.1942, iz stanovanja nasproti sodnih zaporov (lokacija 17). Po njej so oddajnik za nekaj časa skrili, kasneje so ga predelali in ga vse do konca vojne uporabljali za vzdrževanje zveze med Glavnim in Vrhovnim štabom.

Usoda sodelavcev radia: Marjan Vesenjak je padel 2.2.1942, Prežihov Voranc in Milan Osredkar sta konec vojne dočakala v koncentracijskem taborišču, Drago Hartnar v partizanih, Vida Lasič pa se je iz radijske tehnike na osvobojenem ozemlju leta 1944 vrnila v Ljubljano, da bi vzpostavila radijsko zvezo s štabom, a so jo kmalu aretirali. Nekaj dni preden so partizani vkorakali v Ljubljano, so jo izpustili in je lahko 9.5.1945 prebivalcem iz preko radijskih valov sporočila, da je Ljubljana osvobojena.

ZAKLAD

Zaklad vas bo popeljal mimo 22 lokacij, od koder je oddajal radio Kričač; zgoraj smo omenili, da so oddajali iz 23 lokacij: hiše na Vilharjevi 2 ni več, zato tam ni postanka, eno hišo so vmes podrli in na njenem mestu sezidali novo, vse ostale pa še stojijo. Večina stavb ima spominsko ploščo. Končna točka je v bližini stavbe, kjer je delovalo uredništvo radia Kričač (hišna številka 12 na drugi strani).

Lokacije boste odkrivali postopoma - pri vsaki se vam bo odkrilo nekaj novih točk, od katerih ste morda nekatere odkrili že v prejšnjih korakih. Postopek:
- ko vas GPS pripelje na novo lokacijo, morate najprej ugotoviti, na kateri lokaciji (številko) se sploh nahajate, in sicer s pomočjo podatkov iz trenutne ter iz prejšnje lokacije;
- ko veste, kje ste, lahko določite naslednje lokacije. Predlagamo, da jih po vrsti označujete s črkami (A,B,....,V). Nove lokacije boste določili s pomočjo podatkov iz trenutne lokacije;
- odpravite se do naslednje lokacije in ponovite postopek.

Na vsaki lokaciji morate zbrati dva podatka, ki ju boste uporabili v izračunih: hišno številko in število oken, ki gledajo na glavno ulico. Hišna številka verjetno ni problematična, saj je jasno napisana na vseh stavbah, razen na prvi - tam je številka 3. Okna pa so včasih malo bolj zapletena; glavno pravilo je: preštejte samo okna na tisti strani, ki gleda na ulico, po kateri ima stavba naslov. Pri tem nikdar ne štejte oken na strehi (se pravi strešnih oken, frčad, mansardnih oken, itd.) ter izložb. Vedno pa štejte tudi kletna okna; pri tem bodite pozorni, ker so ponekod majhna in neugledna. V tabeli so pri stavbah navedene posebnosti, če je potrebno.
Da se lahko prepričate, ali ste okna pravilno prešteli, je pri vsaki stavbi navedena kontrolna številka (Test): seštejte hišno številko ter število oken in rezultat delite s 7. Ostanek, ki ga morate dobiti pri deljenju, je naveden v tabeli. Formula: T = (H + O) mod 7 (Primer: (12 + 6) mod 7 = 18 mod 7 = 4)
Če se rezultat ne ujema, preverite, če ste upoštevali morebitne opombe, še enkrat pazljivo preštejte okna in izračunajte (ne pozabite prišteti hišne številke!!!).

Kako določite številko lokacije (L2), na katero ste prišli: seštejete hišno številko na trenutni lokaciji (H2) ter hišno številko (H1) in konstanto kL od predhodne lokacije (to je tam, kjer ste dobili koordinate za trenutno lokacijo); kL je navedena v tabeli. Formula: L2 = H2 + H1 + kL

Kako določite koordinate naslednjih lokacij:
- koordinata N: seštejte hišno številko in konstanto kN (#N = H + kN). Iz tabele s koordinatami potem pod dobljeno zaporedno številko #N preberete N.
- koordinata E: seštejte število oken in konstanto kE (#E = O + kE). Iz tabele s koordinatami potem pod dobljeno zaporedno številko #E preberete E.

Podatke dobite v tabeli vmesnih točk (waypoints) - podatki o naslednjih lokacijah so zapisani v trojčkih (kL, kN, kE).

Koordinate lokacij:

# N 46° x.xxx E 14° xx.xxx # N 46° x.xxx E 14° xx.xxx
1 2.432 28.920 12 3.289 30.225
2 2.435 29.000 13 3.320 30.285
3 2.644 29.433 14 3.333 30.331
4 2.660 29.483 15 3.375 30.361
5 2.663 29.735 16 3.398 30.375
6 2.861 29.769 17 3.432 30.419
7 2.864 29.807 18 3.803 30.735
8 2.942 30.040 19 3.807 30.920
9 3.009 30.134 20 3.828 30.921
10 3.151 30.164 21 3.979 31.042
11 3.178 30.166 22 4.259 31.126

Za lažji pregled in računanje natisnite preglednico za reševanje (vsebuje tudi primer reševanja). Za lažjo orientacijo v prostoru natisnite zemljevid mesta (ima vrisano mrežo v koordinatnem sistemu za GPS).

Končna točka: N 46° 03.nnn   E 014° 30.eee

nnn = H19 * H22 + O16 * H7 + 5
eee = H3 * O9 * O7 + O22 * O19 - H16 - 10

kjer sta Hx in Ox hišna številka ter število oken na lokaciji x.

POMEMBNO:

  • Za reševanje naloge ni nikjer treba stopati na privatna zemljišča. Vse je vidno z javnih površin (pločnikov).
  • Lokacije so razporejene po širšem delu Ljubljane. Najprimernejše je, da se zaklada lotite s kolesom. Računajte, da boste za reševanje potrebovali več ur. Če boste najeli Bicikelj, se vam splača pred potekom ene ure najema kolo vrniti in počakati 5 minut - po tem se začne čas šteti znova (in vam ni treba doplačevati za dodatne ure).

English description:

Radio Kričač (could be translated as Radio Shoutbox - if we quote Pengovsky) was an illegal radio station of the Liberation Front, which broadcasted from November 17th 1941 to April 5th 1942 from as many as 23 different houses in Ljubljana. It was the only illegal resistance radio station in occupied Europe at that time - all others broadcasted from safe locations in UK or USSR. It was never discovered even though Italian soldiers tried their best to do so.

Ljubljana was occupied on April 11th 1941, shortly after German forces attacked Yugoslavia on April 6th 1941. An agreement between Germany, Italy and Hungary specified that the later occupy Prekmurje, Germany everything East of line Ljubljana-Jesenice, whereas Italy got everything else, including the city of Ljubljana.

Radio transmitter was made by Rado Luznar during his seminar at University, though none of his colleagues were aware of it. Transmitter consisted of three parts, later on a battery pack (accumulator) was added.

Broadcasting program was made by: editor-in-chief renown writer Prežihov Voranc (culture, local and foreign politics), Fran Albreht (news and reports from war front), Rudi Kobilica, Miro Jeršič and Jože Dolenc (propaganda and front announcements) and Tone Vodnik. Transmitter was carried and managed by Vida Lasič, Drago Hartnar and Miloš Brelič, with announcers Marjan Vesenjak and Milan Osredkar.

It was decided at the beginning that they will broadcast regularly as all normal stations. But that made occupation forces aware of the time of broadcasting and their searching easier; in times when Italians could shoot you if they found a single resistance leaflet in your hands, running radio shows was especially dangerous. After each broadcasting the transmitter was disassembled and carried in two or three different directions to another location. There are 23 known broadcasting locations around Ljubljana, but there might be more. Due to security, owners of the houses weren't informed of the activity, they thought that they were hiding resistance meeting. A few hours before the broadcasting, parts of transmitter were brought to the location where they were assembled, aerial was put out and radio calibrated. After the broadcasting everything was disassembled in a hurry and crew scattered around town. Sometimes they had to return for equipment if Italians were close by.

There were three broadcasts per week: on Monday, Wednesday and Saturday at 20:00, and they lasted 15 minutes. In the last period when Italian searches narrowed, broadcast time was adjusted to the speed of the search and was shortened down to 6 minutes. The longest show lasted 1 hour - on February 8th 1942 - Slovenian Cultural Holiday (it was aired from location 22).

Program started with a ticking clock, which symbolises that “our time is at hand”, then followed by an announcer’s voice saying “Slovenes! Listen, Slovenes! This is the Liberation Front! This is the Liberation Front”. In first months first stanza of then Slovene anthem “Forward, the Flag of Glory” followed and again the announcer’s voice saying “This is the Liberation Front! This is the Liberation Front! We are broadcasting on a short wave transmitter…” This part was latter omitted due to shorter time of broadcast.

Radio Shoutbox was a thorn in Italians side from the beginning, though they first thought that it was broadcasting from abroad. When they realized that Shoutbox was working in Ljubljana, they attempted all they could think of to find it and destroy it. They made daily raids, curfew became longer and longer, they used goniometers. They alternatingly switched off electricity in different parts of town to narrow the search - but due to accumulator programme was never cut off. Even though after a few months couple of thousands soldiers and 20 vehicles with goniometers searched the town during every broadcast, they weren't able to find the transmitter. So the Italians decided for drastic measures: at March 26th 1942 they ordered a confiscation of every single radio receiver in Ljubljana, thus forcing Shoutbox to terminate operations until April 1944, when the official Radio of Liberation Front was set up in liberated zone (in Črnomelj). The last broadcast of Radio Shoutbox was at April 5th 1942 from a flat watching the prisons (location 17). Afterwards transmitter was hidden for a few months, and then carried trough the barbed wire fence (encircling whole city of Ljubljana) to the liberated zone where it was used for a communication between Slovenian and Yugoslav partisan headquarters until the end of war.

The crew's fate: Marjan Vesenjak died in battle on February 2nd 1942, Prežihov Voranc and Milan Osredkar were arrested and sent to concentration camp, but they survived. Drago Hartnar joined partisans where he stayed until the end of war. Vida Lasič went to liberated zone to work as radio technician, but returned to Ljubljana in 1944 to maintain a radio connection with Slovenian army headquarters. Due to too strong transmitter she was (as she foresaw from a start) soon arrested and imprisoned. A few days before partisans marched into Ljubljana she was set free and on May 9th 1945 she found a radio transmitter and announced to the citizens of Ljubljana that the city was liberated.

THE CACHE

The cache will lead you to 22 locations Radio Shoutbox bradcasted from. We mentioned above that there were 23 such houses - the one at Vilharjeva 2 was demolished, so no stop there. Most of the buildings have a plaque on it with short info about the Radio (see background photo). The final location is near the radio's editorial office (house number 12 on the other side).

Locations will be revealed gradually. At each step you will calculate new location(s) - some might be known from previous steps. Procedure:
- at the arrival to a new location you have to first determine its Id (on arrival you know only coordinates). Location Id is calculated using data from current and previous location;
- when you know location Id, you can determine coordinates of next locations. We suggest to mark them with letters (A,B,....,V). Coordinates of next location(s) are calculated using data from current location;
- go to next location and repeat the procedure above.

At each location you have to collect two pieces of data: House Number (HN) and number of Windows (W) overlooking a main street. House number is always clearly written on each building except the first one (where it is number 3). You have to be careful with windows though: count only the windows overlooking the street in the address. Don't count windows on the roof (dormers etc.) nor the shop/display windows. You have to count the basement windows also - these can be quite small and unnoticeable. If necessary, in a Waypoint list remarks are added to some locations.
To be sure that you counted correctly, there is a control number for each location (Test): add House Number and number of Windows, divide result by 7 and take the remainder. The remainder you should get is written in the Waypoint list. Formula: T = (HN + W) mod 7 (Eg.: (12 + 6) mod 7 = 18 mod 7 = 4).
If T is different than expected, check the remarks, count the windows again and recalculate (don't forget to add the house number!!!).

How to calculate the Id (L2) of current location: add the House Number of the current location (H2), House Number of the previous location (H1) and constant kL of the previous location. H1 and kL are in the Waypoint list row where you got the coordinates for the current location. Formula: L2 = H2 + H1 + kL.

How to determine coordinates of next locations:
- N coordinate (latitude): add the House Number of current location (H) and constant kN of next location (#N = H + kN). Then read N coordinate from row #N in Table2.
- E coordinate (longitude): add number of Windows of current location (W) and constant kE of next location (#E = W + kE). Then read E coordinate from row #E in Table2.

You can get data for above calculations in Waypoint list - data for next location Ln is written in triple Ln=(kL, kN, kE).

Coordinates of the locations (Table2):

# N 46° x.xxx E 14° xx.xxx # N 46° x.xxx E 14° xx.xxx
1 2.432 28.920 12 3.289 30.225
2 2.435 29.000 13 3.320 30.285
3 2.644 29.433 14 3.333 30.331
4 2.660 29.483 15 3.375 30.361
5 2.663 29.735 16 3.398 30.375
6 2.861 29.769 17 3.432 30.419
7 2.864 29.807 18 3.803 30.735
8 2.942 30.040 19 3.807 30.920
9 3.009 30.134 20 3.828 30.921
10 3.151 30.164 21 3.979 31.042
11 3.178 30.166 22 4.259 31.126

Print out the solving spreadsheet for ease of use (it also contains an example of solving). To assist with orientation print the map of Ljubljana (it has grid in GPS coordinate system).

Final location: N 46° 03.nnn   E 014° 30.eee

nnn = H19 * H22 + W16 * H7 + 5
eee = H3 * W9 * W7 + W22 * W19 - H16 - 10

where Hx and Wx are house number and number of windows at location x.

IMPORTANT:

  • There is no need to go from public area to private land. All data can be gathered from pavements.
  • It takes several hours to solve the cache.
  • Locations are spread around Ljubljana. It is best to use a bike to get from one location to another. If you plan to use Bicikelj "rent-a-bike" it is best to return the bike within an hour, wait for five minutes then rent it again (no additional payment this way).

Additional Hints (Decrypt)

FYB: I ivfvav bpv, oefywna
RAT: Rlr yriry, vil

Decryption Key

A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M
-------------------------
N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X|Y|Z

(letter above equals below, and vice versa)