In Wisconsin, United States
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The West Twin River watershed is one of seven watersheds within north central Manitowoc, southeastern Brown County and a small portion of Kewaunee County. This watershed contains twenty-nine rivers and streams which course for 130 miles. Five lakes, 10 acres or larger, are also found here. Numerous spring ponds and wetlands are found throughout the area.
The Lake Itself:
Lilly Lake lies in a shallow glacial depression that was created during the retreat of the last glacier. As such, Lily Lake is similar to the “kettle lakes” of the Kettle Moraine State Forest in southeastern and east central Wisconsin. The topography of the lake area is generally rolling hills with small ravines following along stream corridors. Lily Lake is completely surrounded by soils classified as Carbondale Muck. Carbondale Muck is found in old glacial lake basins and along stream valleys. This muck is very deep and poorly drained with a high organic content. Below the Muck lies a bedrock of Limestone (Calcium Carbonate).
Natural lakes in Wisconsin are frequently classified by the source of their water supply and outflow. Based on these factors different categories of lakes have been identified and are listed below.
Drainage lakes have both an inlet and an outlet and the main water source is stream drainage. Most major rivers in Wisconsin have drainage lakes somewhere along their path of flow. Drainage lakes, which owe over half of their maximum depth because of dam construction, are considered to be artificial lakes.
These types of lakes do not contain an inlet or an outlet, and only occasionally overflow. These landlocked water body’s principal sources of water is from precipitation, runoff and groundwater from the immediate drainage area. Seepage lakes commonly reflect rainfall patterns and groundwater levels and may fluctuate seasonally. Seepage lakes are the most common type of lake found in Wisconsin.
These types of lakes have no inlet, although they do have a continually flowing outlet. Their primary water source is groundwater pumping into the bottom of the lake from the surface drainage area (spring). Spring lakes are the headwaters of many streams and are fairly common in northern Wisconsin.
Like spring lakes, these lakes have no inlet, but do have a flowing outlet. Drained lakes are not groundwater-fed, as is the case with spring lakes. Their primary water source is from precipitation and drainage from the surrounding land. Frequently, water levels within drained lakes fluctuate, depending on the water supply. Under severe conditions, there could be no outlet flow because of the low water supply. Drained lakes are the least common type of lake found within the state of Wisconsin.
Artificial lakes are man-made bodies of water generally referred to as impoundments. An impoundment is considered a drainage lake since it has an inlet, an outlet, and its principal water source comes from stream drainage. Approximately 13 percent of all lakes in Wisconsin fit this definition.
Every lake has its own separate and distinct personality. This personality can be based on its size, depth, water clarity, configuration, types of plant and animal life present, chemical characteristics and other factors. Some of these factors are listed in greater detail below.
Lake water quality and species of fish present are significantly influenced by the type of lake that it is. For example, drainage lakes can support populations of fish, which are not necessarily the same as the type found in the connecting streams. Drainage lakes, particularly impoundments, usually have higher nutrient levels than seepage or spring lakes. In contrast, landlocked seepage lakes are not influenced by streams and consequently, could have less diverse fish populations. Seepage lakes also have a smaller drainage area, which may account for lower nutrient levels and thus, a less diverse plant population.
Certain lakes, especially those near acidic wetlands, such as bogs, can become tainted with tannin. Tannin is a chemical leached from decaying vegetation and leaf material, which settles into the lake and stains the water. These so called "tannin lakes" can range from a dark (coffee) to a light brown (tea) color.
Lakes can also be classified as soft or hard water lakes. Hard water lakes contain higher levels of dissolved minerals such as calcium, iron and magnesium as compared to the levels of soft water lakes. These minerals are entered into groundwater as it passes through the soil and bedrock. Therefore, most wells contain hard water. Most lakes have fairly soft water unless they are fed primarily by springs percolating up through the bedrock (limestone in this area of Wisconsin). Plant and wildlife populations will also differ with variations in water hardness.
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Summer (open water questions to answer)
#1. Of the 5 lake types listed above, what type do you believe this lake to be?
#2. Would you consider this to be a Tannin lake?
#3. What type of soil surrounds the lake?
Answers found at the site or within the readings below:
The Geocache Notification Form has been submitted to Doug Hartman, Brown County Facility and Park Management Department of the Wisconsin DNR.
(No hints available.)
Last Updated: on 09/04/2016 12:34:00 Pacific Daylight Time (19:34 GMT)
Coordinates are in the WGS84 datum