Dudbridge railway station served the Stroud suburb of Dudbridge and the village of Sesley, little more than 1 mile (1.6 km) from Stroud. The station was on the 5 3⁄4 miles (9.3 km) long Stonehouse and Nailsworth Railway, later part of the Midland Railway.
The station opened as "Dudbridge for Stroud" with the railway in 1867. The buildings included a two-storey station-master's house and though there was originally only a single platform, the station was a passing place on the single-track branch line.
In 1885, the Midland Railway built a very short branch line from Dudbridge to Stroud. The new line opened for goods traffic in 1885 and for passengers the following year, at which point Dudbridge became a junction station, and a second platform was built.
The Stonehouse and Nailsworth Railway, along with the rest of the Midland Railway, became part of the London Midland and Scottish Railway at the 1923 Grouping. Passenger services were suspended on the line as an economy measure to save fuel in June 1947, and were officially withdrawn from 8 June 1949. Dudbridge remained open for goods traffic until 1966.