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Spomenik NOB - Kodžak Virtual Cache

Hidden : 04/27/2021
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SI: Sredi Maribora s svojo monumentalnostjo vzbuja pozornost Spomenik NOB. Zaobljena, sedem metrov visoka kupola je delo akademskega kiparja Slavka Tihca. V bronast, površinsko brušen spomenik so vtisnjene podobe in portreti revolucionarjev. Med Mariborčani pa se ga je hitro prijel vzdevek Kodžak, saj njegova oblika spominja na gologlavega detektiva Kojaka iz priljubljene televizijske serije iz 70tih let.

Zapleti pred postavitvijo:
Spomeniška komisija je že leta 1961 pri Okrajnem ljudskem odboru Maribor odobrila Tihčev osnutek za spomenik, ki ga je kipar načrtoval skupaj z arhitektom Jaroslavom Černigojem, vendar brez realizacije izvedbe. Leta 1966 je bil razpisan republiški natečaj, na katerem je režija podelila prvo nagrado Tihcu, vendar tudi ta osnutek ni bil realiziran. Leta 1971 bila ustanovljena komisija, ki se je najbrž želela izogniti Tihcu, saj je k sodelovanju povabila Borisa Kalina in Stojana Batiča. Zaradi burnih odzivov strokovne javnosti so se morali jeseni leta 1973 odločiti za interni razpis. Poslali so vabila Dragu Tršarju, Slavku Tihcu, Stojanu Batiču, Zdenku Kalinu in Borisu Kalinu, na katero sta se odzvala le Tihec in Tršar. Z njima je občina v začetku leta 1974 končno sklenila pogodbo, ki ni zapovedovala umetniške izvedbe, ampak le zahtevo, da naj bo »komunikativno sporočilo in izpoved o delavskem boju, narodnoosvobodilnem gibanju, revoluciji, trpljenju in zmagi Maribora ter severovzhodne Slovenije« razumljivo takratnim in bodočim rodovom. Jeseni 1974 sta žirija in Odbor za postavitev spomenika izbrala Tihčev projekt in izmed preostalih možnih lokacij (na Piramidi, ob Dravi, ob magistrali pri Spomeniku talcem – Talcem, na ploščadi pred hotelom Slavija, na osi Trg Svobode – Maistrov trg in v parku ob ulici Moše Pijada) so izbrali končno lokacijo na južnem delu Trga Svobode.


Skica, 1975 | Vir: Zapuščina Slavka Tihca, UGM

Ekspresna postavitev:
Za realizacijo v nemogočih časovnih omejitvah je bil izdelan elaborat ter določen odbor, ki mu je predsedoval dipl. gr. ing. Edo Žak. V pol leta so si sledile vse faze od makete do postavitve. Po maketi je bil v merilu najprej izdelan model – pozitiv (GP Stavbar), nato je sledila izdelava kalupov, večinoma iz poliuretanske mase in odlivanje v bron, ki je potekalo pri dveh livarjih. Jedro je bilo odlito v livarni Torzo v Sesvetah pri Zagrebu(Božidar Hočevar), na Jesenicah na Dolenjskem pa so odlivali trakove in bazo. Predhodno so bile za jedro izdelane grafične podloge s podobami. Sitotiskarsko delo, zapleten prenos rastrov na sferični model, je opravil Herbert Maurin, priznan tiskar iz Maribora. Odlitke je bilo potrebno večkrat popravljati, brusiti in čistiti. Zahtevnemu prevozu posameznih delov na lokacijo je sledila montaža in postavitev na trgu. Tihec je nadziral in sodeloval v vseh fazah procesa, pogosto je za izvedbo celo izdelal načrte ter orodja; v korespondenci navaja, da je pri naštetih delih verjetno sodelovalo 250 ljudi, asistentov, izvajalcev in pomočnikov.


Iz ateljeja Slavka Tihca, 1975 | Vir: Zapuščina Slavka Tihca, UGM


Slavko Tihec z maketo Kodžaka

  

  


Potek gradnje Kodžaka

Obdan z veliko množico je bil Spomenik NOB v Mariboru odkrit leta 1975, v letu 30. obletnice konca druge svetovne vojne. Spektakelsko so ga odkrili 27. novembra zvečer, dva dni pred tedaj osrednjim državnim praznikom, ki je slavil nastanek republike in nove države Jugoslavije. Če uporabimo današnje besedišče, bi lahko rekli, da so ga kot relativno pozno zahvalo postavili tistim, ki so žrtvovali svoja življenja za svobodo, ter tudi kot opomnik na vojno nasilje.

  
Prireditev ob odkritju Kodžaka in mestni utrinek iz 80. let

Namen spomenika:
Spomenik narodnoosvobodilne borbe v Mariboru je postavljen vsem znanim in neznanim borcem, talcem, izgnancem, internirancem in aktivistom, ki so se ne glede na svoje politično prepričanje uprli okupatorju, branili svojo svobodo in človeško dostojanstvo ter pri tem pa žrtvovali svoja življenja. Med te junake je umetnik Slavko Tihec vključil tudi portret tovariša Josipa Broza –Tita , vrhovnega poveljnika narodnoosvobodilne vojske in partizanskih odredov Jugoslavije kot simbola upora jugoslovanskih narodov proti okupatorju v drugi svetovni vojni.


Imena obrazov na spomeniku

Vsebino spomenika dopolnjujejo še trije dokumenti, ki so jih odtisnili na podnožje kasneje, že po otvoritvi, ob zadnjih zaključnih delih na spomeniku julija 1976. Gre za poslovilno pismo na smrt obsojenega Jožeta Fluksa iz leta 1942 ter dva razglasa, ki objavljata streljanje talcev. Prvi razglas je iz 24. in 25. avgusta 1941, med temi talci so prebivalci Lovrenca na Pohorju ter tudi Slava Klavora. Drugi razglas iz leta 1942 pa objavlja imena 134 talcev in šteje za najbolj množično skupinsko streljanje v mariborskih zaporih.

Avtor - Slavko Tihec:
Kipar Slavko Tihec se je rodil 10. julija 1928 v Mariboru, diplomiral je v Ljubljani leta 1955 na Akademiji likovnih umetnosti, izpopolnjeval pa se je v Parizu. Od leta 1969 je poučeval na ALU v Ljubljani. Je avtor številnih kiparskih del, med katerimi izstopajo Spomenik Pohorskemu bataljonu na Osankarici (1958−59), Spomenik NOB v Mariboru (1975−76) in Cankarjev spomenik v Ljubljani (1979−82). Za svoje delo je prejel leta 1973 Jakopičevo, leta 1983 pa Prešernovo nagrado. Umrl je v Ljubljani 11. februarja 1993.


Slavko Tihec

Zakaj Kodžak?
Spomenika se je oprijelo nenavadno ime – Kodžak (Kojak). Ne ve se natanko, kako je ime nastalo, a list papirja s Tihčevo pisavo iz leta 1977 kaže, da se je poimenovanje Kodžak že takrat pojavilo med ljudmi.

Mlajša generacija verjetno niti ne ve, kdo je sploh bil Kojak. V osemdestih letih je skoraj vsa jugoslovanska televizijska publika poznala zanimivega, neobičajnega detektiva s tem imenom, ki so ga na malih zaslonih lahko spremljali kar nekaj let. Za razliko od današnje pestre ponudbe programov s kriminalkami, je bila ta nanizanka takrat redek primer televizijske akcije, ki se ni nanašala na drugo svetovno vojno. Povezave med detektivom Kojakom in kipom ni eno stavno razložiti. Krožili so vici, ki so povezovali Kojakovo plešasto gladko glavo s formo spomenika. Vsekakor je očitno, da je spomenikova forma nagovarjala obliko glave, kajti vic, ki je izšel pod rubriko Toti list v Večeru jo ob obnovi spomenika tudi omenja: Ljubljančan vpraša Mariborčana: »Ti posluši, za kva pa ma vš Kodžak odprto glavo?« Mariborčan ponosno odgovori: »Zato, ker smo vsi Mariborčani taki.«


Telly Savalas - Kojak

Več antropologov ponuja tudi razlago, ki lahko razširi razumevanje fenomena detektiva Kojaka. Ocenjuje se, da je bil detektiv prvi poskus ameriške televizijske propagande, da se ameriško družbo pokaže kot odprto. Kojak je v nadaljevanki Grk, torej priseljenec, ki s svojimi zanimivimi, a neobičajnimi navadami potrjuje pestrost družbe, hkrati pa tudi njeno sposobnost, da vključi predvsem nacionalno raznolike posameznike. Zato lahko sklepamo, da je poimenovanje neznanca v svojem okolju (abstraktne forme sredi mesta) z imenom Kojak, pravzaprav tudi svojevrstni odraz sprejetja.

V osemdesetih je bil spomenik v centru dogajanja. Trg je bil prostor velikih dogodkov: sejmov, uradnih proslav, veselic, promocijskih dogodkov … Hkrati pa tudi zelo pogosta točka srečanja, ki je nagovarjala povsem osebno sfero. V Večeru, osrednjem mestnem časopisu na zadnji strani med oglasi lahko v osemdesetih in devetdesetih beremo, da je kot zbirno mesto za izlete navedeno, kar z ljudskim imenom: »…dobimo se pred Kodžakom ob 8. uri.«

Obnova spomenika:
Septembra leta 2010 so začeli z obnovo spomenika NOB. Sprva je bila predvidena le sanacija razpok in poškodb z varjenjem brona ter zaščita in premaz notranje konstrukcije. Po začetku del pa so spoznali, da je spomenik v slabšem stanju, kot so sprva predvidevali. Treba je bilo posodobiti vso notranjo podporno konstrukcijo, tako da togi kovinski elementi ne ovirajo zunanjega skeleta, in da ne prihaja do stika dveh različnih kovin, kar bi povzročilo kemijske reakcije. Vse ojačitve in stike med ploščami so izvedli v bronu ter zamenjali eno od napisnih plošč na spodnjem obroču spomenika. Obnovljen spomenik je 25. novembra 2010 tako slovesno zasijal v novi, svetlješi podobi.

  
Kodžak pred in po obnovi

Današnja vloga in pomen:
Druga svetovna vojna je daleč, vendar pa je strahotno nasilje vojne bilo pred nekaj leti zelo blizu, in, čeprav smo menili, da je slednje nemogoče, so se ponovile tudi grozote, na katere nas opominja naš Spomenik. Danes gledamo sorodne prizore vsak dan v medijih. Naš spomenik zato govori tudi o krhki stabilnosti in tem, kako hitro podležemo manipulaciji. Naj nas spominja tudi na to, da samo z aktivnostjo lahko ustavimo tiste, ki v imenu ideologij želijo uničiti človeška življenja. Ta vloga pa gotovo presega sicer estetsko inovativno in fascinantno podobo Spomenika NOB v Mariboru.

Danes spomenik predstavlja del vsakdana številnih Mariborčanov, ki grejo tod mimo po svojih vsakodnevnih opravkih in pogosto služi tudi kot zbirno mesto. Verjetno ni Mariborčana, ki ne bi vsaj enkat izrekel ali slišal besed: »Čuj, pridi do Kodžaka.« Mlajše mariborske generacije najbrž ne vedo, kaj predstavlja ta spomenik, niti ne vedo, kdo je detektiv Kojak, zagotovo pa vedo, kje v Mariboru je Kodžak.

Naloga:
- Na list papirja ali telefon ali tablico ali kak drug medij, ki omogoča zapis, zapišite svoj GC vzdevek in datum obiska.
- OPCIJSKO: svoje GC ime in datum obiska zapišite v skico vozila s katerim ste prišli v Maribor (če ste peš, narišite hišo).
- Posnamite fotografijo na kateri se vidi vaše GC ime in datum obiska s "Kodžakom" v ozadju in jo prilepite v svoj log.


EN: In the centre of Maribor, the Monument of the National Liberation War attracts attention with its monumentality. The rounded, seven-meter-high dome is the work of academic sculptor Slavko Tihec. Images and portraits of revolutionaries are engraved in the bronze, surface-polished monument. Citizens of Maribor quickly adopted it by the nickname Kodžak, as the shape of the monument is reminiscent of the bald detective Kojak from a popular TV series from the 70s.

Complications before installation:
As early as 1961, the Monument Commission approved the Tihec draft at the Maribor District People's Committee, which the sculptor planned together with the architect Jaroslav Černigoj, but without the realization. In 1966, a republican competition was announced, in which the first prize was awarded to Tihec, but even this draft was not realized. In 1971, another commission was set up, which probably wanted to avoid Tihec, as it invited Boris Kalin and Stojan Batič to participate. Due to the stormy reactions of the professional public, they had to decide on an internal call in the autumn of 1973. Invitations were sent to Drago Tršar, Slavko Tihec, Stojan Batič, Zdenek Kalin and Boris Kalin, to which only Tihec and Tršar responded. At the beginning of 1974, the municipality finally concluded a contract with them, which did not command artistic performance, but only the requirement that "a communicative message about the workers' struggle, national liberation movement, revolution, suffering and victory of Maribor and northeastern Slovenia" be well understandable for present and future generations. In the autumn of 1974, the jury and the Committee for the erection of the monument selected Tihec's project and from the remaining possible locations (on the Pyramid hill, along side the Drava river, along the main road at the Hostage Monument - Talcem, on the platform in front of the Slavija Hotel, on the Trg Svobode - Maistrov trg axis and in the park near Moše Pijada street) chose the final location in the southern part of Trg Svobode (Liberty square).


Draft, 1975 | Source: Legacy of Slavko Tihec, UGM (Art Gallerey of Maribor)

Express installation:
For realization in impossible time limits, a study was prepared and a committee was appointed. In half a year, all phases from model to installation followed through. According to the scale model, the full model was first made by GP Stavbar (local construction company), followed by the making of molds, mostly from polyurethane mass and casting in bronze, which took place at two foundries. The core was cast in the Torzo foundry in Sesvete near Zagreb (Božidar Hočevar), and in Jesenice in the Dolenjska region, strips and the base were cast. In advance, graphic pads with images were made for the core. Herbert Maurin, a renowned printer from Maribor, did the screen printing work of the complex transfer of rasters to a spherical model. The castings had to be repaired, sanded and cleaned several times. The demanding transport of individual parts to the location was followed by assembly and installation on the square. Tihec supervised and participated in all phases of the process, often even making plans and tools for implementation; In his correspondence, he states that 250 people, assistants, contractors and assistants probably took part in the work.


Art studio of Slavko Tihec, 1975 | Source: Legacy of Slavko Tihec, UGM (Art Gallerey of Maribor)


Slavko Tihec with Kodžak model

  

  


Construction of Kodžaka

Surrounded by a large crowd, the Monument to the National Liberation War in Maribor was unveiled in 1975, on the 30th anniversary of the end of the Second World War. It was spectacularly unveiled on the evening of November 27, two days before the then central national holiday, which celebrated the creation of the republic and the new state of Yugoslavia. If we use today’s vocabulary, we could say that it was placed as a relatively late thanksgiving to those who sacrificed their lives for freedom, and also as a reminder of war violence.

  
Unveiling event of Kodžak and glimpse of city life in the 80s

The purpose of the monument:
A monument to the national liberation struggle in Maribor has been erected to all known and unknown fighters, hostages, exiles, internees and activists who, regardless of their political beliefs, resisted the occupier, defended their freedom and human dignity and sacrificed their lives. Among these heroes, the artist Slavko Tihec also included a portrait of comrade Josip Broz-Tito, commander-in-chief of the National Liberation Army and partisan detachments of Yugoslavia as a symbol of the Yugoslav peoples' revolt against the occupier in World War II.


Names of faces on the monument

The contents of the monument are supplemented by three documents, which were printed on the base after the opening, during the last final works on the monument in July 1976. There is a farewell letter from 1942 of Jože Fluks, who was convicted to death and two announcements announcing the shooting of hostages. The first proclamation is from 24th and 25th of August 1941, among these hostages are the inhabitants of Lovrenc na Pohorju and also Slava Klavor. The second proclamation from 1942 published the names of 134 hostages and was considered the most massive group shooting in Maribor prisons.

Author - Slavko Tihec:
Sculptor Slavko Tihec was born on 10th of July 1928 in Maribor, graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts in Ljubljana in 1955, and continued his studies in Paris. From 1969 he taught at the Academy of Fine Arts in Ljubljana. He is the author of numerous sculptural works, among which the Monument to the Pohorje Battalion in Osankarica (1958−59), the Monument to the National Liberation War in Maribor (1975−76) and the Cankar Monument in Ljubljana (1979−82) stand out. He received the Jakopič Award in 1973 and the Prešeren Award in 1983 for his work. He died in Ljubljana on 11th of February 1993.


Slavko Tihec

Why Kodžak?
The monument got an unusual name - Kodžak (Kojak). It is not known exactly how the name came about, but a sheet of paper with Tihec's writing from 1977 shows that the name Kodžak appeared among the people already at that time.

The younger generation probably doesn’t even know who Kojak was at all. In the 1980s, almost the entire Yugoslav television audience knew an interesting, unusual detective with that name, who could be watched on television for several years. Unlike today's diverse range of crime programs, this series was a rare example of a television program at the time that did not relate to World War II. There is no single explanation for the connection between Detective Kojak and the statue. Several jokes circled, connecting Kojak's bald smooth head with the shape of the monument. In any case, it is obvious that the form of the monument addressed the shape of the head, because the joke published under the comedy column in Večer (local newspaper) also mentions it: Person from Ljublana asks a local: "Why does your Kodžak has an open head (open mind)?" He proudly answers: "Because we are all like that in Maribor."


Telly Savalas - Kojak

Several anthropologists also offer a variety of options that can be used to understand the phenomena of Detective Kojak. It is estimated that the detective was the first attempt by American television propaganda to show American society as open. In the series Kojak is a Greek immigrant, with his interesting, unusual habits, which confirms the diversity of society, as well as its ability to include nationally diverse individuals. Therefore, it can be concluded that naming a stranger in one's environment (abstract form in the middle of the city) with the name Kojak is, in fact, also a kind of reflection of acceptance.

In the 1980s, the monument was at the center of attention. The square was a place of big events: fairs, official celebrations, festivities, promotional events… At the same time, it was also a very common meeting point, which addressed a completely personal sphere. In 1980s and 1990s on the back pages of Večer (local newspaper), this location is listed as assembly point for excursions with the local popular name: "… we will meet in front of Kodžak at 8 o'clock."

Restoration of the monument:
In September 2010, the restoration of the National Liberation War monument began. Initially, only the repair of cracks and damage by welding bronze and the protection and coating of the internal structure were planned. However, after the start of work, it was realized that the monument was in a worse condition than they had initially anticipated. It was necessary to update the entire internal support structure so that the rigid metal elements do not obstruct the outer skeleton, and so that no two different metals come into contact, which would cause chemical reactions. All reinforcements and contacts between the slabs were made in bronze and one of the inscription plates on the lower ring of the monument was replaced. On 25th of November 2010, the restored monument shone so solemnly in a new, brighter image.

  
Kodžak before and after restoration

Today's role and significance::
World War II is far away, but the terrible violence of the war was very close a few years ago. And although we thought it was impossible, the horrors of which our Monument reminds us have been repeated. Today, we watch related scenes every day in the media. Our monument therefore also speaks of fragile stability and how quickly we succumb to manipulation. Let it also remind us that only through activity can we stop those who want to destroy human lives in the name of ideologies. This role certainly goes beyond the otherwise aesthetically innovative and fascinating image of the National Liberation War Monument in Maribor.

Today, the monument is part of the everyday life of many Maribor residents who pass by here for their daily activities and often also serves as a gathering place. There is probably no Maribor resident who would not say or hear the words: "Hey, let's meet at Kodžak." The younger generations of Maribor probably do not know what this monument represents, nor do they know who Detective Kojak is, but they certainly know where in Maribor Kodžak stands.

Task:
- Write your GC nickname and date of visit on a piece of paper or smartphone or tab or whatever other possibility.
- OPTIONAL: Write your GC nickname and date into a sketch of the vehicle, you arrived with to Maribor (if you walked, sketch a house).
- Take a photo of your GC nickname and date of visit with "Kodžak" in the background and paste it to your log.


Viri / Sources:
- https://www.kamra.si/digitalne-zbirke/item/spomenik-nob-na-trgu-svobode-v-mariboru.html
- https://www.geago.si/sl/pois/15194/spomenik-nob-maribor
- Breda Kolar Sluga: Spomenik NOB v Mariboru
- Umetnostna galerija Maribor: Zapuščina Slavka Tihca
- PAM, Tihčev govor na zaključni 10. seji Odbora, 1976
- Irena Mavrič Žižek: Znane osebnosti na Spomeniku narodnoosvobodilne borbe v Mariboru 1941−1945
- Enciklopedija Slovenije, 13. knjiga Š/T, Ljubljana 1999, str. 252


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This Virtual Cache is part of a limited release of Virtuals created between June 4, 2019 and June 4, 2021. Only 4,000 cache owners were given the opportunity to hide a Virtual Cache. Learn more about Virtual Rewards 2.0 on the Geocaching Blog.

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