All cemeteries have their stories, and Evergreen cemetery has more than its fair share. Those buried there personify Tucson as it grew from a dusty, pioneer outpost in the Arizona Territory to the major metropolis that it is today. When you walk among the stones, you may note that even those of the rich and powerful have a simplicity that reflects the pioneering spirit of the hardy people that lived in Tucson in the 19th and early 20th century. There are stories found at every grave; tales of love, drought, prejudice, war, development and displacement. The tragedy of lives cut short and the sorrow of those long-loved departed.
Each cache will introduce you to some of the stories associated with both the famous and not so famous of early Tucson. All the caches in the cemetery, except for the last, are virtual and the information gleaned from each site will help you find your way to the following steps and finally to the physical cache at the end. Note: The cache is more fun if you resist reading all the tales before you start. Because of the many large trees in the cemetery, coordinates can be off somewhat. Just search around a bit; (you may just notice some other interesting stones along the way) and use the calculated coordinates for the next stage, not the actual coordinates you read for that site. Depending on your "in you head" math skills, you might want to a least bring a writing implement along. Cemetery hours are from dawn to dusk and please be respectful of all who rest there.
N320 15.891 W1100 58.705
One of the founders of modern Tucson was Samuel Hughes. Born in Wales, he and his family came to the U.S. in 1838. When the Gold Rush hit California in 1849, Hughes went west and established his early fortune managing hotels. In 1858 Hughes moved to Tucson where he spent the rest of his life, influencing the blossoming city as a merchant, mining man, politician and banker. He married 12-year-old Atanacia Santa Cruz in 1863, and they had 15 children, 10 of whom reached adulthood. Their daughter Lizzie, born when Atanacia was 14, was the mother of Hiram S. Corbett, the namesake of Tucson's Hi Corbett Field in Reid Park. Among Sam Hughes' many lasting legacies was his strong commitment to public education in the early Old Pueblo, and a beautiful neighborhood just east of the University of Arizona is named for him.
Add the digits of the year Sam died (i.e. 1604; 1+6+0+4=11) and add this number to the latitude coordinate for this site to find the missing coordinates for site 2.
N320 15.??? W1100 58.713
Tucson's beginnings are indelibly marked with the contributions of many ethnic and religious groups willing to brave the rough conditions of the Arizona desert. In 1852, Philip Drachman and his brother Samuel, Jews from Lodz, Poland, arrived in New York City. To avoid their conscription into the Russian Czar's army, Philip and Samuel's parents dug a secret cellar under their home. When the Russian army came for Philip, he could not be found. He was, in fact, hidden in the cellar where he lived for months until his parents could make arrangements for both Philip and Samuel to go to America. Philip had health problems most of his adult life that he felt were a result of the time he spent in the damp cellar. Some claim that he came to Tucson for the warm, dry climate (perhaps he should be credited with beginning the flood of folks heading to Tucson for health reasons!). By 1864, Philip became a wealthy land owner, cattle rancher and merchant. Because there were few Jewish women in Arizona, in 1868 he traveled to New York City where he persuaded Rosa Katzenstein to marry him and make the long, difficult journey back to Tucson. They had ten children, and the boys had to be taken to California so that they could be circumcised in accordance with Jewish tradition. During his life, Philip was elected to the Territorial Legislature and founded one of the first synagogues in Tucson, and a street bears his name. Philip died of pneumonia in 1889. His original headstone was damaged by vandals and has been replaced by the modern headstone you see now.
Rosa's grave is next to Philip's marker. Add the day of the month that Rosa died to the longitude coordinate of this site to determine the missing numbers for site 3.
N320 15.848 N W1100 58.???
Life in territorial Arizona was anything but easy. No one personifies the perils awaiting those who ventured into the southwest deserts better than Larcena Ann Pennington.
Born in Tennessee in 1837, Larcena came with her family to Arizona in 1857 and married John H. Page in 1859. In 1860, she was captured by Apaches in Madera Canyon south of Tucson. Because of her inabaility to keep up during the day-long march over rough terrain, she was repeatedly speared, beaten, thrown over a ledge and left for dead. Despite her injuries, she crawled into a lumber camp, ill and starving, 14 days later. In 1861 when Larcena was 3 months pregnant, John was killed by Apaches, a fate that befell Larcena's father and two brothers in later years. In addition to her brush with death at the hands of the Apaches, Larcena also survived smallpox. Her second husband, William Fisher Scott, is buried just south of Larcena. She had one child with John Page and two children with William Scott and was 76 when she died.
Twelve graves south is the final resting place of Elena Martinez Hughes, who died in 1893 when she was crushed by a falling adobe wall. Take Elena's age at her death and subtract 6. Subtract this number from the longitude of this site for the missing coordinates for the next stop.
N320 15.832 W1100 58.???
Frontiersman, scout and indian Agent, Thomas Jonathan Jeffords was also a steamboat captain in Mississippi as a young man. He was very tall, well over 6 feet, and had a reputation as a prolific gambler. He came to New Mexico in 1859 and during this time, forged a friendship with the legendary Apache chief Cochise. Cochise, wrongly accused in 1860 of kidnapping an 11-year old white girl, came forward under a flag of truce to declare his innocence. The army chose not to believe him and tried to place him under arrest. In the melee that ensued, Cochise was wounded but escaped, but six men who had accompanied him were captured and hanged. This act infuriated Cochise, and for more than 10 years he and 200 followers waged war throughout southern Arizona, eluding capture by hiding out in the Dragoon Mountains in an area that became known as the Cochise Stronghold. In 1872, Jeffords, who was said to be the only white man Cochise trusted, played a key role in establishing a dialogue between Cochise and army general O. O. Howard to negotiate an end to the Cochise War. Jeffords knew Cochise would respect Howard, as he had been instrumental in aiding freed slaves after the Civil War (Howard University is named after the general). Jeffords was present when Cochise died in 1874, and was the only white man entrusted with the secret location of Cochise's burial site, somewhere in the Stronghold. When he died at his Owl's Head ranch 35 miles north of Tucson, the secret died with him.
Take the last two digits of Jeffords' birth year and add 3. Add this number to the latitude of this site to find the missing coordinates for site 5.
N320 15.??? W1100 58.785
John H. Booher was not famous. But his life exemplifies many of the everyday people of early Tucson. He was born in Iowa in 1881, and in 1903 married Nellie Barnett. They spent 5 years on a homestead in Colorado, and eventually settled in Tucson. John and Nellie had 2 children, Carroll John and Margaret Ann. Some said that Nellie made the best rolls and apple pie in Pima County.
Count the number of letters in John's middle name and add 2. Insert this number for the missing digit in the next site's longitude to get the proper coordinates for the next site.
N320 15.853 W1100 58.?71
Davis-Monthan Air Force Base was named after two WWI airmen from Tucson who died in separate military aircraft accidents. This marks the grave of 1st Lt. Samuel Howard Davis. 2nd Lt. Oscar Monthan is also buried in Evergreen; his grave can be found at N320 15.902 , W1100 58.718.
Add the digits of the year Sam died and multiply this number by 9. Add this number to the longitude for this site to move you along to the next stop.
N320 15.953 W1100 58.???
In 1883, Joseph Cullen Root founded a fraternal organization called Modern Woodmen of America in Omaha, NE. One of the benefits of being a member was that upon death, the other members in the area would pass around a hat and give money to the widow. When membership grew and passing the hat became more frequent and costly, Root decided to sell life insurance to members and the Modern Woodmen of America became a fraternal benefit society. In 1899, some disgruntled members formed a new group called Woodmen of the World. Up until 1935, when a member died, the society would donate one hundred dollars towards burial expenses if the family allowed the society's emblem on the stone. Some members had stones carved like tree stumps, like the one you see here.
The stone at this site marks the grave of I.F. Coppel, Woodman of the World. Add together the digits of Mr. Coppel's age when he died and take this number and add it to this site's latitude to determine the missing numbers for the next step.
N320 15.??? W1100 58.892
While Tucson is commonly associated with Hispanic culture and heritage, African Americans played a role in the pioneering spirit of southern Arizona. Ft. Huachuca, southeast of Tucson in Sierra Vista, was one of the largest segregated posts in the country. The Old Pueblo also has a rich history of African American ranchers and cowboys. Thomas Grant was born in Germantown, Kentucky in 1848 and was a member of a black regiment of the Army of the Republic during the Civil War. He came to Tucson in 1892 and worked for an attorney until 1933.
Turn around to the monument behind and slightly south of Thomas Grant's gravesite. Take the captain's age at death and divide by 2. Subtract this number from the latitude of this site to find the missing numbers of the next stop.
N320 15.??? W1100 59.157
Beginning in 1875, Tucsonans were buried in the old city cemetery (located between N Main Ave, N Stone Ave, 2nd St and Speedway). In 1907, the Town Council passed an ordinance that prohibited burials within the city limits. Over the next 20 years, the graves from the old city cemetery were relocated to Evergreen. Those whose relatives could afford perpetual care, were reburied in the front of the cemetery where you see beautiful trees and grass. The deceased whose relatives could not afford this, or who could not be contacted were re-interred in the county plot where you now stand. It might seem the paucity of headstones indicates there are not many people buried here. Actually, the area is completely full; many of the graves had wooden markers that have succumbed to time and the elements. Some bodies, unfortunately, could not be readily identified after the move, and were buried in a mass, unmarked grave at the far west end of this site.
One such dweller is Frank Stilwell. Stilwell was a member of the outlaw gang "The Cowboys" which had close ties to the Clanton and McLaury families. His involvement in a fatal stage holdup in 1881 led to a series of events that eventually led to the legendary "Gunfight at the OK Corral" in Tombstone, between the Clanton and McLaury boys and the Earp brothers (Wyatt, Virgil and Morgan) and Doc Holliday. In March of 1882, Morgan Earp was gunned down in Tombstone while playing billiards, and Stilwell was one of the suspects. Three days later, Stilwell's bullet-riddled body was found near the rail depot in Tucson. It was alleged that Wyatt Earp and Doc Holliday found Stilwell and shot him in cold blood. They were indicted for the murder of Stilwell, but both Wyatt and Doc left Arizona and never were brought to trial.
William Gray is buried here. Add all the digits of his birth date (month, day and year) and add 33. Subtract this number from the latitude of this site to determine the missing numbers of the next.
N320 15.??? W1100 58.977
Tucson would not be what it is today without the arrival of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Thousands of Chinese laborers were brought to Arizona to extend the railroad through the desert. Their wages were a dollar a day, 50 cents less than Anglo workers, and the Chinese were also expected to pay for their own board. However, before the railroad ever reached Tucson in 1880, 3 Chinese men, apparently unrelated but all with the family name "Wong" left the work crews and headed to Tucson. They opened the O.K. Restaurant on Church and Mesilla streets in the late 1870's. Restaurants, grocery stores, laundries and farming became important industries for the early Chinese community in Tucson. Immigrant Chinese laborers also found employment in copper mines; by 1883, 1 of 4 miners were Chinese.
Racism was major problem for the Chinese in Arizona. Anglos and Mexicans did not understand the Chinese customs and resented the Chinese laborers adding competition to the job market. This racism eventually led to violence and Chinese workers were often attacked in railroad camps and mining towns. When the railroad companies stopped seeking Chinese laborers, laws were enacted to make it difficult for Chinese to immigrate to America. There were also Anti-Chinese Leagues in every major Arizona city in the 1880's and by 1893, Chinese were required to carry a certificate of residence which included a photograph. A 1901 Arizona law prohibited Chinese from marrying Anglos. Many Chinese returned to China; others remained and helped build Tucson.
At this site is the simple, handmade stone of Lim Mon. Next to it is the grave of a man who died in 1932. Take this man's age when he died and subtract 49. Add this number to the latitude from this site to fill in the missing numbers of the final site.
N320 15.??? W1100 58.773
The physical cache is hidden near the final resting place of Marianne Shurtleff. I could not find any information about Marianne's life, but take a moment to contemplate all the unknown stories of all who rest here.